Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal is a rare condition with increasing incidence rates in the United States population in the past several decades. This review article provides a complete overview of the etiology, anatomy and the approach to the multidisciplinary management of the patient with anal SCC. Chemoradiation therapy for the treatment of SCC of the anal canal provides excellent disease control and survival while preserving anal sphincter function in the majority of patients. The surgeon plays a key role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. Surgical salvage with APR for disease persistence or recurrence in carefully selected patients can result in reasonable 5-year survivals.
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