Some of the effects of terrorism on refugees

J. David Kinzie

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    11 Scopus citations


    Highly traumatized people are vulnerable to exacerbation of symptoms when confronted with stressful situations. The extensive TV coverage of the 9/11 attacks provided such a stressful stimulus. Many patients from Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Somalia, and Bosnia had severe reactions. Nightmares and flashbacks occurred most among Somalis, who felt less safe; depressive symptoms increased most among Bosnians. Encouraging patients to turn off the TV was very therapeutic. The Patriot Act severely affected refugee immigration to the United States, leaving many families separated and increasing suspicions of discrimination among Muslim refugees. Terrorism's effects are pervasive and destructive. Some countermeasures may have similar unintended consequences.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)411-420
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma
    Issue number3-4
    StatePublished - Dec 1 2004


    • 9/11
    • Counter terrorism
    • Media
    • PTSD
    • Refugees
    • Terrorism

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
    • Clinical Psychology
    • Psychiatry and Mental health


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