Background Current guidelines recommend vascular mapping ultrasound (US) prior to arteriovenous fistula creation. Blunted venous waveforms (BVWs) suggest central venous stenosis; however, this relationship and one between BVWs and the presence of a central venous catheter (CVC) remain unclear. Methods All patients who received upper extremity vascular mapping US between January 2013 and October 2014 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, US results, pacemaker history, and CVC status were collected. Waveforms were assessed at the proximal subclavian vein/distal axillary vein and interpreted by radiologists. Patients were determined to have central venous stenosis (CVS) if detected by venography within 6 months of US. Results There were 342 patients, of which 165 (48%) had a current CVC and 29 (8.5%) had BVW of at least 1 arm. Right-sided BVW were associated with a history of a prior ipsilateral CVC (odds ratio [OR] = 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6–12.6, P = 0.009). Of the 342 patients, 69 (20%) had a venogram within 6 months. Seventeen (25%) of the 69 patients had CVS, with 7 involving the left subclavian vein, 8 the right subclavian vein, and 3 the superior vena cava (one patient had tandem stenoses). A BVW on the left side was not associated with any CVS. A BVW on the right side was associated with an ipsilateral CVS (OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.2–27.4, P = 0.04). This association persisted in the setting of a prior CVC (relative risk = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9–2, P = 0.01). Conclusions There are associations between right-sided BVW and an ipsilateral subclavian vein stenosis. We recommend that hemodialysis access planning includes venography to rule out central vein stenosis in patients with BVW, especially if right-sided and in the setting of a prior CVC.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine