Short Communication: HIV-1 Variants That Use Mouse CCR5 Reveal Critical Interactions of gp120's V3 Crown with CCR5 Extracellular Loop 1

Emily J. Platt, James P. Durnin, David Kabat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The CCR5 coreceptor amino terminus and extracellular (ECL) loops 1 and 2 have been implicated in HIV-1 infections, with species differences in these regions inhibiting zoonoses. Interactions of gp120 with CD4 and CCR5 reduce constraints on metastable envelope subunit gp41, enabling gp41 conformational changes needed for infection. We previously selected HIV-1JRCSF variants that efficiently use CCR5(Δ18) with a deleted amino terminus or CCR5(HHMH) with ECL2 from an NIH/Swiss mouse. Unexpectedly, the adaptive gp120 mutations were nearly identical, suggesting that they function by weakening gp120's grip on gp41 and/or by increasing interactions with ECL1. To analyze this and further wean HIV-1 from human CCR5, we selected variants using CCR5(HMMH) with murine ECL1 and 2 sequences. HIV-1JRCSF mutations adaptive for CCR5(Δ18) and CCR5(HHMH) were generally maladaptive for CCR5(HMMH), whereas the converse was true for CCR5(HMMH) adaptations. The HIV-1JRCSF variant adapted to CCR5(HMMH) also weakly used intact NIH/Swiss mouse CCR5. Our results strongly suggest that HIV-1JRCSF makes functionally critical contacts with human ECL1 and that adaptation to murine ECL1 requires multiple mutations in the crown of gp120's V3 loop.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)992-998
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume31
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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