Although in vitro fertilization (IVF) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, there is increasing concern about the long-term and sex-specific health implications. Augmenting our IVF mouse model to longitudinally investigate metabolic outcomes in offspring from optimal neonatal litter sizes, we found sex-specific metabolic outcomes in IVF offspring. IVF-conceived females had higher body weight and cholesterol levels compared to naturally conceived females, whereas IVF-conceived males had higher levels of triglycerides and insulin, and increased body fat composition. Through adult liver transcriptomics and proteomics, we identified sexually dimorphic dysregulation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathways that are associated with the sex-specific phenotypes. We also found that global loss of DNA methylation in placenta was linked to higher cholesterol levels in IVF-conceived females. Our findings indicate that IVF procedures have long-lasting sex-specific effects on metabolic health of offspring and lay the foundation to utilize the placenta as a predictor of long-term outcomes.
- assisted reproductive technologies
- developmental origins of health and disease
- long-term health
- metabolic outcomes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology