Sex biology contributions to vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease: A think tank convened by the Women's Alzheimer's Research Initiative

Heather M. Snyder, Sanjay Asthana, Lisa Bain, Roberta Brinton, Suzanne Craft, Dena B. Dubal, Mark A. Espeland, Margaret Gatz, Michelle M. Mielke, Jacob Raber, Peter R. Rapp, Kristine Yaffe, Maria C. Carrillo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

50 Scopus citations


More than 5 million Americans are living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) today, and nearly two-thirds of Americans with AD are women. This sex difference may be due to the higher longevity women generally experience; however, increasing evidence suggests that longevity alone is not a sufficient explanation and there may be other factors at play. The Alzheimer's Association convened an expert think tank to focus on the state of the science and level of evidence around gender and biological sex differences for AD, including the knowledge gaps and areas of science that need to be more fully addressed. This article summarizes the think tank discussion, moving forward a research agenda and funding program to better understand the biological underpinnings of sex- and gender-related disparities of risk for AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1186-1196
Number of pages11
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2016



  • Alzheimer's disease
  • APOE
  • Estrogen
  • Hormones
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Risk factors
  • Sex biology
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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