Severity of neuropsychological impairment in cocaine and alcohol addiction: Association with metabolism in the prefrontal cortex

Rita Z. Goldstein, Andreana C. Leskovjan, Anne L. Hoff, Robert Hitzemann, Francine Bashan, Sahib Singh Khalsa, Gene Jack Wang, Joanna S. Fowler, Nora D. Volkow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

259 Scopus citations


We used exploratory and confirmatory statistical approaches to study the severity of neuropsychological (NP) impairment in 42 crack/cocaine addicted subjects and in 112 comparison subjects (40 alcoholics and 72 controls). Twenty neuropsychological test indices most reliably defining predetermined cognitive domains were submitted to exploratory factor analysis. A four-dimensional model of neurocognitive function was derived: Verbal Knowledge, Visual Memory, Verbal Memory, and Attention/Executive functioning accounted for 63% of the variance. We then examined this model's association with resting glucose metabolism in the brain reward circuit measured with 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography. Results revealed that (1) cocaine addicted individuals had a generalized mild level of neurocognitive impairment (

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1447-1458
Number of pages12
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2004



  • Cognitive functioning
  • Drug abuse
  • Functional neuroimaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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