Seasonal patterns in risk factors for Taenia solium transmission: A GPS tracking study of pigs and open human defecation in northern Peru

Ian W. Pray, Claudio Muro, Ricardo Gamboa, Percy Vilchez, Wayne Wakeland, William Pan, William Lambert, Hector H. Garcia, Seth O'Neal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. Results: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. Conclusions: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number352
JournalParasites and Vectors
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 16 2019

Fingerprint

Taenia solium
Peru
Defecation
Swine
Homing Behavior
Feces
Cysticercosis
Spatial Analysis
Cestoda
Rural Population
Risk-Taking

Keywords

  • Cestodes
  • Cysticercosis
  • GPS
  • Open defecation
  • Peru
  • Pigs
  • Taenia solium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Seasonal patterns in risk factors for Taenia solium transmission : A GPS tracking study of pigs and open human defecation in northern Peru. / Pray, Ian W.; Muro, Claudio; Gamboa, Ricardo; Vilchez, Percy; Wakeland, Wayne; Pan, William; Lambert, William; Garcia, Hector H.; O'Neal, Seth.

In: Parasites and Vectors, Vol. 12, No. 1, 352, 16.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pray, Ian W. ; Muro, Claudio ; Gamboa, Ricardo ; Vilchez, Percy ; Wakeland, Wayne ; Pan, William ; Lambert, William ; Garcia, Hector H. ; O'Neal, Seth. / Seasonal patterns in risk factors for Taenia solium transmission : A GPS tracking study of pigs and open human defecation in northern Peru. In: Parasites and Vectors. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. Results: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79{\%} (IQR: 61-90{\%}) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60{\%} of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61{\%} larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95{\%} CI: 41-73{\%}). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. Conclusions: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.",
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AU - Vilchez, Percy

AU - Wakeland, Wayne

AU - Pan, William

AU - Lambert, William

AU - Garcia, Hector H.

AU - O'Neal, Seth

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AB - Background: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. Results: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. Conclusions: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.

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