Screening for Gestational Diabetes: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force

Jennifer Pillay, Lois Donovan, Samantha Guitard, Bernadette Zakher, Michelle Gates, Allison Gates, Ben Vandermeer, Christina Bougatsos, Roger Chou, Lisa Hartling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Gestational diabetes is associated with several poor health outcomes. Objective: To update the 2012 review on screening for gestational diabetes to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (2010 to May 2020), ClinicalTrials.gov, reference lists; surveillance through June 2021. Study Selection: English-language intervention studies for screening and treatment; observational studies on screening; prospective studies on screening test accuracy. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Dual review of titles/abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality. Single-reviewer data abstraction with verification. Random-effects meta-analysis or bivariate analysis (accuracy). Main Outcomes and Measures: Pregnancy, fetal/neonatal, and long-term health outcomes; harms of screening; accuracy. Results: A total of 76 studies were included (18 randomized clinical trials [RCTs] [n = 31241], 2 nonrandomized intervention studies [n = 190], 56 observational studies [n = 261678]). Direct evidence on benefits of screening vs no screening was limited to 4 observational studies with inconsistent findings and methodological limitations. Screening was not significantly associated with serious or long-term harm. In 5 RCTs (n = 25772), 1-step (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group) vs 2-step (Carpenter and Coustan) screening was significantly associated with increased likelihood of gestational diabetes (11.5% vs 4.9%) but no improved health outcomes. At or after 24 weeks of gestation, oral glucose challenge tests with 140- and 135-mg/dL cutoffs had sensitivities of 82% and 93%, respectively, and specificities of 82% and 79%, respectively, against Carpenter and Coustan criteria, and a test with a 140-mg/dL cutoff had sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 81% against the National Diabetes Group Data criteria. Fasting plasma glucose tests with cutoffs of 85 and 90 mg/dL had sensitivities of 88% and 81% and specificities of 73% and 82%, respectively, against Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Based on 8 RCTs and 1 nonrandomized study (n = 3982), treatment was significantly associated with decreased risk of primary cesarean deliveries (relative risk [RR], 0.70 [95% CI, 0.54-0.91]; absolute risk difference [ARD], 5.3%), shoulder dystocia (RR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.23-0.77]; ARD, 1.3%), macrosomia (RR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.41-0.68]; ARD, 8.9%), large for gestational age (RR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.47-0.66]; ARD, 8.4%), birth injuries (odds ratio, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.11-0.99]; ARD, 0.2%), and neonatal intensive care unit admissions (RR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.53-0.99]; ARD, 2.0%). The association with reduction in preterm deliveries was not significant (RR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.56-1.01]). Conclusions and Relevance: Direct evidence on screening vs no screening remains limited. One- vs 2-step screening was not significantly associated with improved health outcomes. At or after 24 weeks of gestation, treatment of gestational diabetes was significantly associated with improved health outcomes..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)539-562
Number of pages24
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume326
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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