SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology and assessment of coronaviruses in CNS diseases with a focus on therapeutic targets

Jayalakshmi Vallamkondu, Albin John, Willayat Yousuf Wani, Suguru Pathinti Ramadevi, Kishore Kumar Jella, P. Hemachandra Reddy, Ramesh Kandimalla

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    17 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    The novel Coronavirus disease of 2019 (nCOV-19) is a viral outbreak noted first in Wuhan, China. This disease is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus (CoV)-2. In the past, other members of the coronavirus family, such as SARS and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), have made an impact in China and the Arabian peninsula respectively. Both SARS and COVID-19 share similar symptoms such as fever, cough, and difficulty in breathing that can become fatal in later stages. However, SARS and MERS infections were epidemic diseases constrained to limited regions. By March 2020 the SARS-CoV-2 had spread across the globe and on March 11th, 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as pandemic disease. In severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, many patients succumbed to pneumonia. Higher rates of deaths were seen in older patients who had co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and dementia. In this review paper, we discuss the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer's-like dementia, and diabetes mellitus. We also focus on the virus genome, pathophysiology, theranostics, and autophagy mechanisms. We will assess the multiorgan failure reported in advanced stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our paper will provide mechanistic clues and therapeutic targets for physicians and investigators to combat COVID-19.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number165889
    JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
    Volume1866
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Oct 1 2020

    Keywords

    • Brain
    • COVID-19
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Neutralizing antibodies
    • SARS-CoV-2
    • Therapeutics

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Molecular Medicine
    • Molecular Biology

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