Salicylate toxicity after undetectable serum salicylate concentration: a retrospective cohort study

Michael J. Moss, J. Ashton Fisher, Tara A. Kenny, Allison C. Palmer, John A. Thompson, Hannah Wolfer, Robert Hendrickson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Salicylates are usually rapidly absorbed and quickly measurable in serum. An undetectable serum salicylate concentration ([ASA]) may occur early after ingestion and may be interpreted as evidence of non-exposure and not repeated. Although cases of delayed salicylate detection are reported rarely, the risk factors associated with this phenomenon are not known. Research question: What factors are associated with an early undetectable [ASA] in salicylate poisoning? Methods: Records from a single regional poison center were searched from 2002 to 2016 for cases of salicylate toxicity treated with bicarbonate and [ASA] > 30 mg/dL. Cases were excluded if initial [ASA] was obtained >4 h after presentation. Case information, serial [ASA], and outcomes were recorded and compared between groups. Results: A total of 313 records met all criteria with 11 initially undetectable [ASA] (3.5%) and 302 detectable [ASA] (96.5%). Time of first [ASA] occurred sooner in the undetectable [ASA] group (89 vs. 137 min, p = 0.011) while time to peak [ASA] was longer (640 vs. 321 min, p <.001). The longest interval between ingestion and undetectable [ASA] was 225 min. Peak [ASA] and reported mean ingested dose were similar in both groups (45 vs. 50 mg/dL, p = NS; 19.7 g vs. 32.9 g, p = NS). Coingestion of agents that delay gastric emptying were similar in both groups (18% [2/11] vs. 25% [76/302], p = NS, chi-square). Hemodialysis was performed in 9% (1/11) of undetectable [ASA] patients and 5.6% (17/302) of detectable [ASA] patients (p = NS, chi-square). A single death occurred in the entire cohort in a patient with an initially detectable [ASA]. Discussion: In this series, a small but significant proportion (3.5%) of patients who developed [ASA] > 30 mg/dL had an initially undetectable [ASA]. Those with an undetectable [ASA] were measured earlier after ingestion with a longer time to peak [ASA]. However, neither coingestion of agents prolonging gastric emptying nor reported dose ingested was different between groups. Formulation was infrequently recorded but one undetectable [ASA] did ingest a non-enteric coated product. Limitations include the small number of patients with undetectable [ASA], use of single poison center data and partial data on co-ingestants and aspirin formulation. Conclusions: [ASA] may be undetectable early after an overdose and need for serial [ASA] in the evaluation of salicylate ingestion should be further explored. Additional research is needed to determine any causative factors and the optimal timing of [ASA] measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Toxicology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Salicylates
Toxicity
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
Serum
Eating
Poisons
Gastrointestinal Agents
Gastric Emptying
Bicarbonates
Research
Poisoning
Aspirin

Keywords

  • Aspirin
  • poisoning
  • salicylate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Salicylate toxicity after undetectable serum salicylate concentration : a retrospective cohort study. / Moss, Michael J.; Fisher, J. Ashton; Kenny, Tara A.; Palmer, Allison C.; Thompson, John A.; Wolfer, Hannah; Hendrickson, Robert.

In: Clinical Toxicology, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Moss, Michael J. ; Fisher, J. Ashton ; Kenny, Tara A. ; Palmer, Allison C. ; Thompson, John A. ; Wolfer, Hannah ; Hendrickson, Robert. / Salicylate toxicity after undetectable serum salicylate concentration : a retrospective cohort study. In: Clinical Toxicology. 2018.
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abstract = "Background: Salicylates are usually rapidly absorbed and quickly measurable in serum. An undetectable serum salicylate concentration ([ASA]) may occur early after ingestion and may be interpreted as evidence of non-exposure and not repeated. Although cases of delayed salicylate detection are reported rarely, the risk factors associated with this phenomenon are not known. Research question: What factors are associated with an early undetectable [ASA] in salicylate poisoning? Methods: Records from a single regional poison center were searched from 2002 to 2016 for cases of salicylate toxicity treated with bicarbonate and [ASA] > 30 mg/dL. Cases were excluded if initial [ASA] was obtained >4 h after presentation. Case information, serial [ASA], and outcomes were recorded and compared between groups. Results: A total of 313 records met all criteria with 11 initially undetectable [ASA] (3.5{\%}) and 302 detectable [ASA] (96.5{\%}). Time of first [ASA] occurred sooner in the undetectable [ASA] group (89 vs. 137 min, p = 0.011) while time to peak [ASA] was longer (640 vs. 321 min, p <.001). The longest interval between ingestion and undetectable [ASA] was 225 min. Peak [ASA] and reported mean ingested dose were similar in both groups (45 vs. 50 mg/dL, p = NS; 19.7 g vs. 32.9 g, p = NS). Coingestion of agents that delay gastric emptying were similar in both groups (18{\%} [2/11] vs. 25{\%} [76/302], p = NS, chi-square). Hemodialysis was performed in 9{\%} (1/11) of undetectable [ASA] patients and 5.6{\%} (17/302) of detectable [ASA] patients (p = NS, chi-square). A single death occurred in the entire cohort in a patient with an initially detectable [ASA]. Discussion: In this series, a small but significant proportion (3.5{\%}) of patients who developed [ASA] > 30 mg/dL had an initially undetectable [ASA]. Those with an undetectable [ASA] were measured earlier after ingestion with a longer time to peak [ASA]. However, neither coingestion of agents prolonging gastric emptying nor reported dose ingested was different between groups. Formulation was infrequently recorded but one undetectable [ASA] did ingest a non-enteric coated product. Limitations include the small number of patients with undetectable [ASA], use of single poison center data and partial data on co-ingestants and aspirin formulation. Conclusions: [ASA] may be undetectable early after an overdose and need for serial [ASA] in the evaluation of salicylate ingestion should be further explored. Additional research is needed to determine any causative factors and the optimal timing of [ASA] measurements.",
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T1 - Salicylate toxicity after undetectable serum salicylate concentration

T2 - a retrospective cohort study

AU - Moss, Michael J.

AU - Fisher, J. Ashton

AU - Kenny, Tara A.

AU - Palmer, Allison C.

AU - Thompson, John A.

AU - Wolfer, Hannah

AU - Hendrickson, Robert

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Background: Salicylates are usually rapidly absorbed and quickly measurable in serum. An undetectable serum salicylate concentration ([ASA]) may occur early after ingestion and may be interpreted as evidence of non-exposure and not repeated. Although cases of delayed salicylate detection are reported rarely, the risk factors associated with this phenomenon are not known. Research question: What factors are associated with an early undetectable [ASA] in salicylate poisoning? Methods: Records from a single regional poison center were searched from 2002 to 2016 for cases of salicylate toxicity treated with bicarbonate and [ASA] > 30 mg/dL. Cases were excluded if initial [ASA] was obtained >4 h after presentation. Case information, serial [ASA], and outcomes were recorded and compared between groups. Results: A total of 313 records met all criteria with 11 initially undetectable [ASA] (3.5%) and 302 detectable [ASA] (96.5%). Time of first [ASA] occurred sooner in the undetectable [ASA] group (89 vs. 137 min, p = 0.011) while time to peak [ASA] was longer (640 vs. 321 min, p <.001). The longest interval between ingestion and undetectable [ASA] was 225 min. Peak [ASA] and reported mean ingested dose were similar in both groups (45 vs. 50 mg/dL, p = NS; 19.7 g vs. 32.9 g, p = NS). Coingestion of agents that delay gastric emptying were similar in both groups (18% [2/11] vs. 25% [76/302], p = NS, chi-square). Hemodialysis was performed in 9% (1/11) of undetectable [ASA] patients and 5.6% (17/302) of detectable [ASA] patients (p = NS, chi-square). A single death occurred in the entire cohort in a patient with an initially detectable [ASA]. Discussion: In this series, a small but significant proportion (3.5%) of patients who developed [ASA] > 30 mg/dL had an initially undetectable [ASA]. Those with an undetectable [ASA] were measured earlier after ingestion with a longer time to peak [ASA]. However, neither coingestion of agents prolonging gastric emptying nor reported dose ingested was different between groups. Formulation was infrequently recorded but one undetectable [ASA] did ingest a non-enteric coated product. Limitations include the small number of patients with undetectable [ASA], use of single poison center data and partial data on co-ingestants and aspirin formulation. Conclusions: [ASA] may be undetectable early after an overdose and need for serial [ASA] in the evaluation of salicylate ingestion should be further explored. Additional research is needed to determine any causative factors and the optimal timing of [ASA] measurements.

AB - Background: Salicylates are usually rapidly absorbed and quickly measurable in serum. An undetectable serum salicylate concentration ([ASA]) may occur early after ingestion and may be interpreted as evidence of non-exposure and not repeated. Although cases of delayed salicylate detection are reported rarely, the risk factors associated with this phenomenon are not known. Research question: What factors are associated with an early undetectable [ASA] in salicylate poisoning? Methods: Records from a single regional poison center were searched from 2002 to 2016 for cases of salicylate toxicity treated with bicarbonate and [ASA] > 30 mg/dL. Cases were excluded if initial [ASA] was obtained >4 h after presentation. Case information, serial [ASA], and outcomes were recorded and compared between groups. Results: A total of 313 records met all criteria with 11 initially undetectable [ASA] (3.5%) and 302 detectable [ASA] (96.5%). Time of first [ASA] occurred sooner in the undetectable [ASA] group (89 vs. 137 min, p = 0.011) while time to peak [ASA] was longer (640 vs. 321 min, p <.001). The longest interval between ingestion and undetectable [ASA] was 225 min. Peak [ASA] and reported mean ingested dose were similar in both groups (45 vs. 50 mg/dL, p = NS; 19.7 g vs. 32.9 g, p = NS). Coingestion of agents that delay gastric emptying were similar in both groups (18% [2/11] vs. 25% [76/302], p = NS, chi-square). Hemodialysis was performed in 9% (1/11) of undetectable [ASA] patients and 5.6% (17/302) of detectable [ASA] patients (p = NS, chi-square). A single death occurred in the entire cohort in a patient with an initially detectable [ASA]. Discussion: In this series, a small but significant proportion (3.5%) of patients who developed [ASA] > 30 mg/dL had an initially undetectable [ASA]. Those with an undetectable [ASA] were measured earlier after ingestion with a longer time to peak [ASA]. However, neither coingestion of agents prolonging gastric emptying nor reported dose ingested was different between groups. Formulation was infrequently recorded but one undetectable [ASA] did ingest a non-enteric coated product. Limitations include the small number of patients with undetectable [ASA], use of single poison center data and partial data on co-ingestants and aspirin formulation. Conclusions: [ASA] may be undetectable early after an overdose and need for serial [ASA] in the evaluation of salicylate ingestion should be further explored. Additional research is needed to determine any causative factors and the optimal timing of [ASA] measurements.

KW - Aspirin

KW - poisoning

KW - salicylate

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