Safety and preliminary efficacy of the Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Russian patients with genitourinary malignancies

Ilya Tsimafeyeu, Maria Volkova, Galina Alekseeva, Maria Berkut, Alexander Nosov, Igor Myslevtsev, Andrey Andrianov, Andrey Semenov, Pavel Borisov, Ruslan Zukov, Vadim Goutnik, Sergey Savchuk, Natalia Dengina, Timur Mitin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: To our knowledge, there is no clinical data pertaining to COVID-19 outcomes and safety of COVID-19 vaccination in Russian patients with genitourinary (GU) malignancies. Aim of our analysis was to describe the characteristics of the COVID-19 infection course as well as preliminary safety and efficacy of Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine in patients with active GU malignancies. Methods: Patients were retrospectively identified at nine cancer centers in different regions. Patients were included if COVID-19 was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction. Data from additional patients with GU cancers who had no positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test before vaccination and who received two doses of Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V) between 11 February and 31 August 2021 were collected for safety assessment. Anonymized data were collected through an online registry covering demographics, treatments, and outcomes. Results: The Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine was well tolerated; no grade 3–5 toxicities were reported in 112 vaccinated metastatic GU cancer patients. The most common grade 1 adverse events (81%) were injection site reactions (76%), flu-like illness (68%), and asthenia (49%). Five patients experienced grade 2 chills (4.5%) and 3 patients had grade 2 fever (2.7%). With median follow-up of 6.2 months, two COVID-19 cases were confirmed by RT-PCR test in the vaccine group (of 112 participants; 1.8%). Eighty-eight patients with COVID-19 disease were included in the analysis. The average age as of the study enrollment was 66 (range 39–81) and the majority of patients were male with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Thirty-six patients (41%) had evidence of metastatic disease, of these 22 patients were receiving systemic therapy. More than half of patients required hospitalization. Fifty-four patients (61%) experienced complications. Sixteen patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia required mechanical ventilator support. Sixteen patients (18%) died in a median of 23.5 days after the date of COVID-19 diagnosis was established. The 3-month survival rate was 82%. Clinical and/or radiographic progression of cancer during COVID-19 infection or the subsequent 3 months was observed in 10 patients (11.4%). Conclusion: Patients with GU malignancies are at increased risk of mortality from COVID-19 infection when compared to the general population. Vaccination could be safe in GU cancer patients. Trial registration: retrospectively registered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number192
JournalJournal of Hematology and Oncology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine
  • Genitourinary malignancies
  • Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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