Safety and efficacy of midazolam nasal spray for the treatment of intermittent bouts of increased seizure activity in the epilepsy monitoring unit: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

David C. Spencer, Saurabh R. Sinha, Eun Jung Choi, Jody M. Cleveland, Aliceson King, Tze Chiang Meng, William E. Pullman, David J. Sequeira, Peter J. Van Ess, James W. Wheless

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Midazolam nasal spray (MDZ-NS) is indicated for acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (ie, seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) that are distinct from a patient's usual seizure pattern, in patients 12 years of age and older with epilepsy. This trial evaluated safety and efficacy of MDZ-NS in patients with epilepsy who were admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit for seizure characterization/presurgical evaluation. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial (P261-301; NCT01999777), eligible patients with ≥2 seizures in the 6-hour window preceding trial medication administration for whom treatment was appropriate based on investigator's judgment were randomized (1:1) to MDZ-NS 5 mg or placebo. Efficacy outcomes were proportion of patients seizure-free for 6 hours after treatment and time to first seizure within 6 hours. Safety and tolerability outcomes included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: Sixty-two patients were randomized (MDZ-NS n = 31; placebo n = 31), received trial medication, and completed the trial. A higher proportion of patients on MDZ-NS than placebo were seizure-free for 6 hours following treatment (54.8% vs 38.7%); however, the 16.1% difference was not statistically significant (P =.1972). The Kaplan-Meier curve of time to first seizure showed separation of both groups in favor of MDZ-NS from ~1.5 hours post-dose and throughout the 6-hour Treatment phase. Median time to first seizure was not estimable for MDZ-NS (>50% of patients had no seizure) and 3.9 hours for placebo (P =.1388). TEAEs with MDZ-NS were generally comparable to those with placebo. There were no deaths, serious TEAEs, or discontinuations due to TEAEs. Significance: Although the observed treatment difference may be clinically meaningful, statistical significance was not demonstrated. Results suggest that MDZ-NS 5 mg may provide improvement over placebo, with efficacy maintained for ≥6 hours post-dose. MDZ-NS was well tolerated in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2415-2425
Number of pages11
JournalEpilepsia
Volume61
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Keywords

  • acute repetitive seizure
  • benzodiazepine
  • intranasal
  • rescue
  • seizure cluster

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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