Hyperglycemia worsens stroke, yet rigorous glycemic control does not improve neurologic outcome. An alternative is to target downstream molecular mediator(s) triggered by hyperglycemia but independent of prevailing glycemia. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential mediator of injury via its metabolism of neuroprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We tested whether hyperglycemia exacerbates cerebral injury by upregulating sEH and decreasing brain EET levels. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was modeled by streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally, 5 days) in male mice. At 4 weeks, STZ-treated and control mice underwent 45-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with or without sEH blockade by trans-4-4-(3-adamantan- 1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy-benzoic acid (t-AUCB; 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally daily for 6 days before MCAO). The STZ-treated mice had increased sEH mRNA expression in cerebral vessels and decreased EET concentrations in brain. There was no difference in cortical perfusion between groups. The STZ-treated mice sustained larger brain infarct than controls. Pretreatment with t-AUCB eliminated the difference in infarct size and EETs concentration between STZ-treated mice and controls, without altering glycemia. We conclude that type 1 diabetes mellitus upregulates sEH mRNA and decreases concentrations of neuroprotective EETs within the brain, leading to worse stroke outcome. The data indicate that sEH antagonism may be beneficial in the setting of hyperglycemic stroke.
- diabetes mellitus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine