Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. This review focuses on the risks for, and diagnosis of, IFIs (candidiasis, aspergillosis and other mould infections), and factors that affect current outcomes. Diagnosis of IFI is difficult, with the sensitivity of the gold standard tests (culture and histopathology) often <50%. Therefore, physicians rely on a constellation of clinical signs, radiography, culture, histopathology and adjunctive tests to establish diagnosis. HSCT recipients often have multiple co-morbidities, and understanding the current outcomes and prognostic variables is therefore important for overall management. This paper reviews historical trends and current data.
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