Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are at high risk for adverse cardiovascular events. Trends over time in outcomes with advances in PCI and medical therapy are unknown. We evaluated 866 patients with PAD in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Dynamic Registry undergoing PCI according to treatment eras: the early bare metal stent (BMS) era (wave 1, 1997 to 1998, n = 180), the BMS era (waves 2 and 3, 1999 and 2001 to 2002, n = 339), and the drug-eluting stent (DES) era (waves 4 and 5, 2004 and 2006, n = 347). We compared in-hospital and 1-year outcomes by recruitment era. In-hospital coronary artery bypass graft surgery rates were significantly lower in the later eras (3.9%, 0.9%, and 0.6% for the early BMS, BMS, and DES eras, respectively, p for trend = 0.005), and an increasing percentage of patients were discharged on aspirin, β blockers, statins, and thienopyridines (p for trend <0.001 for all comparisons). Cumulative 1-year event rates in patients with PAD in the early BMS era, BMS era, and DES era for death were 13.7%, 10.5%, and 9.8% (p for trend = 0.21), those for myocardial infarction (MI) were 9.8%, 8.8%, and 10.0% (p for trend = 0.95), and those for repeat revascularization were 26.8%, 21.0%, and 17.2% (p for trend = 0.008). The 1-year adjusted hazard ratios of adverse events in patients with PAD using the early BMS era as the reference were 0.84 for death in the BMS era (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46 to 1.55, p = 0.58) and 1.35 in the DES era (95% CI 0.71 to 2.56, p = 0.36), 0.89 for MI in the BMS era (95% CI 0.48 to 1.66, p = 0.72) and 1.02 in the DES era (95% CI 0.55 to 1.87, p = 0.95), and 0.63 for repeat revascularization in the BMS era (95% CI 0.41 to 0.97, p = 0.04) and 0.46 in the DES era (95% CI 0.29 to 0.73, p = 0.001). In conclusion, despite significant improvements in medical therapy and a decrease in repeat revascularization over time, patients with PAD who undergo PCI have a persistent high rate of death and MI.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine