Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among individuals with hepatic steatosis

Julia Karády, Maros Ferencik, Thomas Mayrhofer, Nandini M. Meyersohn, Daniel O. Bittner, Pedro V. Staziaki, Balint Szilveszter, Travis R. Hallett, Michael T. Lu, Stefan B. Puchner, Tracey G. Simon, Borek Foldyna, Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, Robert W. McGarrah, Deepak Voora, Svati H. Shah, Pamela S. Douglas, Udo Hoffmann, Kathleen E. Corey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in adults with hepatic steatosis (HS). However, risk factors for CVD in HS are unknown. We aimed to identify factors associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in individuals with HS. We performed a nested cohort study of adults with HS detected on coronary computed tomography in the PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain (PROMISE) trial. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% coronary stenosis. MACE included hospitalization for unstable angina, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or all-cause death. Multivariate modeling, adjusted for age, sex, atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk score and body mass index, identified factors associated with obstructive CAD. Cox regression, adjusted for ASCVD risk score, determined the predictors of MACE. A total of 959 of 3,756 (mean age 59.4 years, 55.0% men) had HS. Obstructive CAD was present in 15.2% (145 of 959). Male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–1.2.84; p = 0.007), ASCVD risk score (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.07; p < 0.001), and n-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; aOR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.38–2.62; p < 0.001) were independently associated with obstructive CAD. In the 25-months median follow-up, MACE occurred in 4.4% (42 of 959). Sedentary lifestyle (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 2.53, 95% CI 1.27–5.03; p = 0.008) and NT-proBNP (aOR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.01–2.25; p = 0.046) independently predicted MACE. Furthermore, the risk of MACE increased by 3% for every 1% increase in ASCVD risk score (aHR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05; p = 0.02). Conclusion: In individuals with HS, male sex, NT-pro-BNP, and ASCVD risk score are associated with obstructive CAD. Furthermore, ASCVD, NT-proBNP, and sedentary lifestyle are independent predictors of MACE. These factors, with further validation, may help risk-stratify adults with HS for incident CAD and MACE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalHepatology Communications
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology


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