Risk factors for anogenital human papillomavirus infection in men

Carrie M. Nielson, Robin B. Harris, Eileen F. Dunne, Martha Abrahamsen, Mary R. Papenfuss, Roberto Flores, Lauri E. Markowitz, Anna R. Giuliano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations


Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Identification of risk factors for HPV infection in men may improve our understanding of HPV transmission and prevention. Methods. HPV testing for 37 types was conducted in 463 men 18-40 years old recruited from 2 US cities. The entire anogenital region and semen were sampled. A self-administered questionnaire was completed. Multivariate logistic regression aided the identification of independent risk factors for any HPV type, oncogenic HPV types, and nononcogenic HPV types. Results. Prevalence was 65.4% for any HPV, 29.2% for oncogenic HPV, and 36.3% for nononcogenic HPV. Factors significantly associated with any HPV were smoking ≥10 cigarettes per day (odds ratio [OR], 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.0-5.3]) and lifetime number of female sex partners (FSPs) (OR for ≥21, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.3-4.6]), and factors significantly associated with oncogenic HPV were lifetime number of FSPs (OR for ≥21, 7.4 [95% CI, 3.4-16.3]) and condom use during the past 3 months (OR for more than half the time, 0.5 [95% CI, 0.3-0.8]). For nononcogenic HPV, a significant association was found for number of FSPs during the past 3 months (OR for ≥2, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.4-6.3]). Conclusions. Lifetime and recent number of FSPs, condom use, and smoking were modifiable risk factors associated with HPV infection in men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1137-1145
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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