Risk factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis: Smoking, diabetes and anti-TNFα drugs

Giovanni Ferrara, Megan Murray, Kevin Winthrop, Rosella Centis, Giovanni Sotgiu, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Markus Maeurer, Alimuddin Zumla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global emergency and continues to kill 1.4 million people every year. The interaction between noncommunicable and infectious diseases like TB has important implications with regard to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Smoking, diabetes mellitus, anti-TNFα drugs and other immunosuppressive therapies are well known major risk factors associated with TB. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature on these risk factors and interventions that reduce the risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Mathematical models and aggregate data from the field show that smoking, diabetes and anti-TNFα drugs independently increase the risk of developing active TB. There is consensus on the great need for screening for active TB disease in patients with these conditions and targeted preventive interventions through a combined multidisciplinary approach. SUMMARY: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, anti-TNFα drugs and new immunosuppressive treatments represent important common risk factors for TB. A high degree of clinical awareness of the possibility of TB should be considered in patients with these risk factors, and active screening and prevention should be undertaken. Further operational research is needed to optimize screening for latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, instituting preventive intervention measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCurrent Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2012

Fingerprint

Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Smoking
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Immunosuppressive Agents
Diabetes Mellitus
Latent Tuberculosis
Mycobacterium Infections
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Communicable Diseases
Consensus
Emergencies
Theoretical Models
Therapeutics
Research

Keywords

  • anti-TNFα agents
  • cigarette smoke
  • diabetes mellitus
  • operational research
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • smoking
  • tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

Risk factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis : Smoking, diabetes and anti-TNFα drugs. / Ferrara, Giovanni; Murray, Megan; Winthrop, Kevin; Centis, Rosella; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin.

In: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 3, 05.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ferrara, Giovanni ; Murray, Megan ; Winthrop, Kevin ; Centis, Rosella ; Sotgiu, Giovanni ; Migliori, Giovanni Battista ; Maeurer, Markus ; Zumla, Alimuddin. / Risk factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis : Smoking, diabetes and anti-TNFα drugs. In: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 2012 ; Vol. 18, No. 3.
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