Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but potentially life-threatening emergency that has both immune and non-immune etiologies. The objective of this investigation was to compare the risk factors and outcomes of immune and non-immune causes of DAH at a tertiary-care academic center. This was a retrospective observational study conducted at a University center. We reviewed all chest radiographs spanning 12 years (2007–2019) at our institute with the words “diffuse alveolar hemorrhage” in the body of their report, and ascertained cases of DAH through a detailed chart review. We used Chi-squared test to determine the differences in risk factors and outcomes between immune versus non-immune causes of DAH. We performed logistic regressions to assess whether baseline demographics and clinical features influence four critical outcomes: death, shock, renal failure, and severe anemia requiring transfusions. Over the 12-year period, there were 88 patients with DAH, 55 with non-immune and 33 with immune etiologies. Among immune causes of DAH, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (10.2%), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) (9%) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (9%) were most common. Among non-immune causes of DAH, coagulopathy (6.8%), decompensated heart failure (4.5%) and infection (3.4%) were most common. Patients with non-immune causes of DAH were 45.8% more likely to die and 20.7% less likely to experience sustained remission (p = 0.001). Patient with immune causes of DAH were 21% more likely to have extra-pulmonary findings and 23.7% more likely to have received hemodialysis (HD). The presence of extra-pulmonary findings was statistically significantly correlated with the number of blood products received, the need for HD and non-statistically significantly correlated with likelihood of death. Patients with immune causes of DAH were 71.5% more likely to receive multimodal therapy including corticosteroids. Immune-mediated DAH is associated with a better prognosis than non-immune DAH, despite its greater association with extra-pulmonary findings and requirement for hemodialysis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy