Introduction: Pulmonary oedema and impairment of oxygenation are reported as common consequences of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). Surprisingly, there is little information in the literature examining differences in crystalloid type during the early phase of HSR regarding the development of pulmonary oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response. These experiments were designed to determine if differences exist because of crystalloid fluid type in the development of oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response to fluid administration in early HSR. Methods: Twenty anaesthetised swine underwent a grade V liver injury and bled without resuscitation for 30 minutes. The animals were randomised to receive, in a blinded fashion, either normal saline (NS; n = 10) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR; n = 10). They were then resuscitated with study fluid to, and maintained at, the preinjury mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 90 minutes. Results: Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) began to increase immediately with resuscitation with both fluid types, increasing earlier and to a greater degree with NS. A 1 ml/kg increase in EVLWI from baseline occurred after administartion of (mean ± standard error of the mean) 68.6 ± 5.2 ml/kg of normal saline and 81.3 ± 8.7 ml/kg of LR (P = 0.027). After 150 ml/kg of fluid, EVLWI increased from 9.5 ± 0.3 ml/kg to 11.4 ± 0.3 ml/kg NS and from 9.3 ± 0.2 ml/kg to 10.8 ± 0.3 ml/kg LR (P = 0.035). Despite this, oxygenation was not significantly impacted (Delta partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 100) until approximately 250 ml/kg of either fluid had been administered. Animals resuscitated with NS were more acidaemic (with lower lactates), pH 7.17 ± 0.03 NS vs. 7.41 ± 0.02 LR (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that early resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with NS or LR has little impact on oxygenation when resuscitation volume is less than 250 ml/kg. LR has more favourable effects than NS on EVLWI, pH and blood pressure but not on oxygenation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine