Resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with normal saline vs. lactated Ringer's: Effects on oxygenation, extravascular lung water and haemodynamics

Charles R. Phillips, Kevin Vinecore, Daniel Hagg, Rebecca S. Sawai, Jerome A. Differding, Jennifer Watters, Martin Schreiber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Pulmonary oedema and impairment of oxygenation are reported as common consequences of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). Surprisingly, there is little information in the literature examining differences in crystalloid type during the early phase of HSR regarding the development of pulmonary oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response. These experiments were designed to determine if differences exist because of crystalloid fluid type in the development of oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response to fluid administration in early HSR. Methods: Twenty anaesthetised swine underwent a grade V liver injury and bled without resuscitation for 30 minutes. The animals were randomised to receive, in a blinded fashion, either normal saline (NS; n = 10) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR; n = 10). They were then resuscitated with study fluid to, and maintained at, the preinjury mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 90 minutes. Results: Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) began to increase immediately with resuscitation with both fluid types, increasing earlier and to a greater degree with NS. A 1 ml/kg increase in EVLWI from baseline occurred after administartion of (mean ± standard error of the mean) 68.6 ± 5.2 ml/kg of normal saline and 81.3 ± 8.7 ml/kg of LR (P = 0.027). After 150 ml/kg of fluid, EVLWI increased from 9.5 ± 0.3 ml/kg to 11.4 ± 0.3 ml/kg NS and from 9.3 ± 0.2 ml/kg to 10.8 ± 0.3 ml/kg LR (P = 0.035). Despite this, oxygenation was not significantly impacted (Delta partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 100) until approximately 250 ml/kg of either fluid had been administered. Animals resuscitated with NS were more acidaemic (with lower lactates), pH 7.17 ± 0.03 NS vs. 7.41 ± 0.02 LR (P <0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that early resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with NS or LR has little impact on oxygenation when resuscitation volume is less than 250 ml/kg. LR has more favourable effects than NS on EVLWI, pH and blood pressure but not on oxygenation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberR30
JournalCritical Care
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 4 2009

Fingerprint

Extravascular Lung Water
Hemorrhagic Shock
Resuscitation
Hemodynamics
Pulmonary Edema
Lactates
Oxygen
Partial Pressure
Ringer's lactate
Edema
Arterial Pressure
Swine
Blood Pressure
Liver
Wounds and Injuries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with normal saline vs. lactated Ringer's : Effects on oxygenation, extravascular lung water and haemodynamics. / Phillips, Charles R.; Vinecore, Kevin; Hagg, Daniel; Sawai, Rebecca S.; Differding, Jerome A.; Watters, Jennifer; Schreiber, Martin.

In: Critical Care, Vol. 13, No. 2, R30, 04.03.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{d1ec106dc13a443a947aae107e27d4c4,
title = "Resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with normal saline vs. lactated Ringer's: Effects on oxygenation, extravascular lung water and haemodynamics",
abstract = "Introduction: Pulmonary oedema and impairment of oxygenation are reported as common consequences of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). Surprisingly, there is little information in the literature examining differences in crystalloid type during the early phase of HSR regarding the development of pulmonary oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response. These experiments were designed to determine if differences exist because of crystalloid fluid type in the development of oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response to fluid administration in early HSR. Methods: Twenty anaesthetised swine underwent a grade V liver injury and bled without resuscitation for 30 minutes. The animals were randomised to receive, in a blinded fashion, either normal saline (NS; n = 10) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR; n = 10). They were then resuscitated with study fluid to, and maintained at, the preinjury mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 90 minutes. Results: Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) began to increase immediately with resuscitation with both fluid types, increasing earlier and to a greater degree with NS. A 1 ml/kg increase in EVLWI from baseline occurred after administartion of (mean ± standard error of the mean) 68.6 ± 5.2 ml/kg of normal saline and 81.3 ± 8.7 ml/kg of LR (P = 0.027). After 150 ml/kg of fluid, EVLWI increased from 9.5 ± 0.3 ml/kg to 11.4 ± 0.3 ml/kg NS and from 9.3 ± 0.2 ml/kg to 10.8 ± 0.3 ml/kg LR (P = 0.035). Despite this, oxygenation was not significantly impacted (Delta partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 100) until approximately 250 ml/kg of either fluid had been administered. Animals resuscitated with NS were more acidaemic (with lower lactates), pH 7.17 ± 0.03 NS vs. 7.41 ± 0.02 LR (P <0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that early resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with NS or LR has little impact on oxygenation when resuscitation volume is less than 250 ml/kg. LR has more favourable effects than NS on EVLWI, pH and blood pressure but not on oxygenation.",
author = "Phillips, {Charles R.} and Kevin Vinecore and Daniel Hagg and Sawai, {Rebecca S.} and Differding, {Jerome A.} and Jennifer Watters and Martin Schreiber",
year = "2009",
month = "3",
day = "4",
doi = "10.1186/cc7736",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
journal = "Critical Care",
issn = "1364-8535",
publisher = "BioMed Central Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with normal saline vs. lactated Ringer's

T2 - Effects on oxygenation, extravascular lung water and haemodynamics

AU - Phillips, Charles R.

AU - Vinecore, Kevin

AU - Hagg, Daniel

AU - Sawai, Rebecca S.

AU - Differding, Jerome A.

AU - Watters, Jennifer

AU - Schreiber, Martin

PY - 2009/3/4

Y1 - 2009/3/4

N2 - Introduction: Pulmonary oedema and impairment of oxygenation are reported as common consequences of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). Surprisingly, there is little information in the literature examining differences in crystalloid type during the early phase of HSR regarding the development of pulmonary oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response. These experiments were designed to determine if differences exist because of crystalloid fluid type in the development of oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response to fluid administration in early HSR. Methods: Twenty anaesthetised swine underwent a grade V liver injury and bled without resuscitation for 30 minutes. The animals were randomised to receive, in a blinded fashion, either normal saline (NS; n = 10) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR; n = 10). They were then resuscitated with study fluid to, and maintained at, the preinjury mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 90 minutes. Results: Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) began to increase immediately with resuscitation with both fluid types, increasing earlier and to a greater degree with NS. A 1 ml/kg increase in EVLWI from baseline occurred after administartion of (mean ± standard error of the mean) 68.6 ± 5.2 ml/kg of normal saline and 81.3 ± 8.7 ml/kg of LR (P = 0.027). After 150 ml/kg of fluid, EVLWI increased from 9.5 ± 0.3 ml/kg to 11.4 ± 0.3 ml/kg NS and from 9.3 ± 0.2 ml/kg to 10.8 ± 0.3 ml/kg LR (P = 0.035). Despite this, oxygenation was not significantly impacted (Delta partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 100) until approximately 250 ml/kg of either fluid had been administered. Animals resuscitated with NS were more acidaemic (with lower lactates), pH 7.17 ± 0.03 NS vs. 7.41 ± 0.02 LR (P <0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that early resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with NS or LR has little impact on oxygenation when resuscitation volume is less than 250 ml/kg. LR has more favourable effects than NS on EVLWI, pH and blood pressure but not on oxygenation.

AB - Introduction: Pulmonary oedema and impairment of oxygenation are reported as common consequences of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). Surprisingly, there is little information in the literature examining differences in crystalloid type during the early phase of HSR regarding the development of pulmonary oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response. These experiments were designed to determine if differences exist because of crystalloid fluid type in the development of oedema, the impact on oxygenation and the haemodynamic response to fluid administration in early HSR. Methods: Twenty anaesthetised swine underwent a grade V liver injury and bled without resuscitation for 30 minutes. The animals were randomised to receive, in a blinded fashion, either normal saline (NS; n = 10) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR; n = 10). They were then resuscitated with study fluid to, and maintained at, the preinjury mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 90 minutes. Results: Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) began to increase immediately with resuscitation with both fluid types, increasing earlier and to a greater degree with NS. A 1 ml/kg increase in EVLWI from baseline occurred after administartion of (mean ± standard error of the mean) 68.6 ± 5.2 ml/kg of normal saline and 81.3 ± 8.7 ml/kg of LR (P = 0.027). After 150 ml/kg of fluid, EVLWI increased from 9.5 ± 0.3 ml/kg to 11.4 ± 0.3 ml/kg NS and from 9.3 ± 0.2 ml/kg to 10.8 ± 0.3 ml/kg LR (P = 0.035). Despite this, oxygenation was not significantly impacted (Delta partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 100) until approximately 250 ml/kg of either fluid had been administered. Animals resuscitated with NS were more acidaemic (with lower lactates), pH 7.17 ± 0.03 NS vs. 7.41 ± 0.02 LR (P <0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that early resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with NS or LR has little impact on oxygenation when resuscitation volume is less than 250 ml/kg. LR has more favourable effects than NS on EVLWI, pH and blood pressure but not on oxygenation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=65449140539&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=65449140539&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/cc7736

DO - 10.1186/cc7736

M3 - Article

C2 - 19257901

AN - SCOPUS:65449140539

VL - 13

JO - Critical Care

JF - Critical Care

SN - 1364-8535

IS - 2

M1 - R30

ER -