Restoration of resident sleep and wellness with block scheduling

James Bordley, Algene G. Agustin, Mohamed A. Ahmed, Raeesa Khalid, Anthony M. Paluso, Bethany S. Kobza, Aaron W. Spaugy, Jonathan Emens, Sima Desai, Akram Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: Block scheduling during residency is an innovative model in which in-patient and ambulatory rotations are separated. We hypothesised that this format may have a positive impact on resident sleep and wellness in comparison with a traditional format. Methods: We performed a single-centre, cross-sectional, observational study of residents rotating in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). Residents were observed for 4 weeks at a time: internal medicine (IM) residents were observed for 3 weeks in the MICU followed by 1 week in an ambulatory context, and non-IM residents were observed for 4 weeks in the MICU. We monitored daily total sleep time (TST) utilising actigraphy, and wellness measures with weekly Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. Results: A total of 64 of 110 (58%) eligible residents participated; data for 49 of 110 (45%) were included in the final analysis. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) daily TST in the entire cohort was 6.53 ± 0.78 hours. Residents slept significantly longer during the ambulatory block than during the MICU block (mean ± SD TST 6.97 ± 1.00 hours and 6.43 ± 0.78 hours, respectively; p < 0.0005). Sleep duration during night call was significantly shorter than during day shift (mean ± SD TST 6.07 ± 1.16 hours and 6.50 ± 0.73 hours, respectively; p < 0.0005). A total of 390 of 490 (80%) ESS and PSS questionnaires were completed; scores significantly declined during rotations in the MICU. Internal medicine residents showed significant improvements in TST, and in ESS and PSS scores (p < 0.05) at the end of the ambulatory week. Non-IM residents, who remained in the MICU for a fourth week, continued a trend that showed a decline in perceived wellness. Conclusions: Despite duty hour restrictions, residents obtain inadequate sleep. As MICU days accumulate, measures of resident wellness decline. Residents in a block schedule experienced improvements in all measured parameters during the ambulatory week, whereas residents in a traditional schedule continued a downward trend. Block scheduling may have the previously unrecognised benefits of repaying sleep debt, correcting circadian misalignment and improving wellness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1241-1249
Number of pages9
JournalMedical Education
Volume51
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

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sleep
restoration
scheduling
resident
medicine
questionnaire
trend
cross-sectional study
indebtedness
time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

Cite this

Bordley, J., Agustin, A. G., Ahmed, M. A., Khalid, R., Paluso, A. M., Kobza, B. S., ... Khan, A. (2017). Restoration of resident sleep and wellness with block scheduling. Medical Education, 51(12), 1241-1249. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13392

Restoration of resident sleep and wellness with block scheduling. / Bordley, James; Agustin, Algene G.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Khalid, Raeesa; Paluso, Anthony M.; Kobza, Bethany S.; Spaugy, Aaron W.; Emens, Jonathan; Desai, Sima; Khan, Akram.

In: Medical Education, Vol. 51, No. 12, 01.12.2017, p. 1241-1249.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bordley, J, Agustin, AG, Ahmed, MA, Khalid, R, Paluso, AM, Kobza, BS, Spaugy, AW, Emens, J, Desai, S & Khan, A 2017, 'Restoration of resident sleep and wellness with block scheduling', Medical Education, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1241-1249. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13392
Bordley J, Agustin AG, Ahmed MA, Khalid R, Paluso AM, Kobza BS et al. Restoration of resident sleep and wellness with block scheduling. Medical Education. 2017 Dec 1;51(12):1241-1249. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13392
Bordley, James ; Agustin, Algene G. ; Ahmed, Mohamed A. ; Khalid, Raeesa ; Paluso, Anthony M. ; Kobza, Bethany S. ; Spaugy, Aaron W. ; Emens, Jonathan ; Desai, Sima ; Khan, Akram. / Restoration of resident sleep and wellness with block scheduling. In: Medical Education. 2017 ; Vol. 51, No. 12. pp. 1241-1249.
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AU - Paluso, Anthony M.

AU - Kobza, Bethany S.

AU - Spaugy, Aaron W.

AU - Emens, Jonathan

AU - Desai, Sima

AU - Khan, Akram

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N2 - Context: Block scheduling during residency is an innovative model in which in-patient and ambulatory rotations are separated. We hypothesised that this format may have a positive impact on resident sleep and wellness in comparison with a traditional format. Methods: We performed a single-centre, cross-sectional, observational study of residents rotating in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). Residents were observed for 4 weeks at a time: internal medicine (IM) residents were observed for 3 weeks in the MICU followed by 1 week in an ambulatory context, and non-IM residents were observed for 4 weeks in the MICU. We monitored daily total sleep time (TST) utilising actigraphy, and wellness measures with weekly Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. Results: A total of 64 of 110 (58%) eligible residents participated; data for 49 of 110 (45%) were included in the final analysis. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) daily TST in the entire cohort was 6.53 ± 0.78 hours. Residents slept significantly longer during the ambulatory block than during the MICU block (mean ± SD TST 6.97 ± 1.00 hours and 6.43 ± 0.78 hours, respectively; p < 0.0005). Sleep duration during night call was significantly shorter than during day shift (mean ± SD TST 6.07 ± 1.16 hours and 6.50 ± 0.73 hours, respectively; p < 0.0005). A total of 390 of 490 (80%) ESS and PSS questionnaires were completed; scores significantly declined during rotations in the MICU. Internal medicine residents showed significant improvements in TST, and in ESS and PSS scores (p < 0.05) at the end of the ambulatory week. Non-IM residents, who remained in the MICU for a fourth week, continued a trend that showed a decline in perceived wellness. Conclusions: Despite duty hour restrictions, residents obtain inadequate sleep. As MICU days accumulate, measures of resident wellness decline. Residents in a block schedule experienced improvements in all measured parameters during the ambulatory week, whereas residents in a traditional schedule continued a downward trend. Block scheduling may have the previously unrecognised benefits of repaying sleep debt, correcting circadian misalignment and improving wellness.

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