Respiratory complications associated with ketamine anesthesia for ophthalmic procedures following intraocular pressure measurement in children

Lei Wu, Kirk Lalwani, Karla A. Hook, Bella M. Almario, Rongwei Fu, Beth Edmunds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


Background: We compared respiratory complications (RCs) in children who received intramuscular (IM) versus intravenous (IV) or no ketamine for intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement to test our observation that IM ketamine is associated with higher incidence of RCs. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 149 eye examinations under anesthesia with ketamine in 27 patients and 263 non-ketamine examinations under anesthesia in 81 patients using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Results: IM ketamine was strongly associated with increased odds of RCs compared to no ketamine (odds ratio (OR): 20.23, P < 0.0001) and to IV ketamine (OR: 6.78, P = 0.02), as were higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification (OR: 2.60, P = 0.04), and the use of volatile agents (OR: 3.32, P = 0.02). Conclusion: Further studies should be conducted to confirm our observation of increased RCs with IM ketamine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-257
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014



  • Adverse events
  • child
  • infant
  • intravenous agents
  • ophthalmology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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