Technical considerations and the instrumentation used for pediatric two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler examination are reviewed. The configurations of sector scanners, the function of the mechanical versus phased array systems and considerations related to lateral, axial and azimuthal resolution requirements are discussed. The performance and requirements for echocardiographic scan converters and the requirements for pediatric display are reviewed. Methods of performing quantitative Doppler echocardiography are discussed because this technique provides new and important types of information for the evaluation of congenital heart disease. Considerations of Doppler velocity, Doppler spatial resolution and Doppler display requirements are presented. Characteristics of ultrasonic imaging devices for use in fetal echocardiography and fetal Doppler study are reviewed, and a brief overview of techniques for the extraction of information about the nature of ultrasound scatterers (that is, tissue signature) is presented. It is the purpose of this technically oriented discussion to present the capabilities, trade-offs and needs for future development relevant to pediatric echocardiography in 1983.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine