Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1) functions in endocytosis and in cell signaling directly (by binding signaling adaptor proteins) or indirectly (by regulating levels of other cell-surface receptors). Because recent studies in rodents suggest that LRP-1 inhibits inflammation, we conducted activity-based protein profiling experiments to discover novel proteases, involved in inflammation, that are regulated by LRP-1. We found that activated complement proteases accumulate at increased levels when LRP-1 is absent. Although LRP-1 functions as an endocytic receptor for C1r and C1s, complement protease mRNA expression was increased in LRP-1-deficient cells, as was expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-6. Regulation of expression of inflammatory mediators was explained by the ability of LRP-1 to suppress basal cell signaling through the IκB kinase-nuclear factor-κB (NF-kκB) pathway. LRP-1-deficient macrophages, isolated from mice, demonstrated increased expression of iNOS, C1r, and monocyte chemoat-tractant protein-1 (MCP-1); MCP-1 expression was inhibited by NF-κB antagonism. The mechanism by which LRP-1 inhibits NF-κB activity involves down-regulating cell-surface tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and thus, inhibition of autocrine TNFR1-initiated cell signaling. TNF-α-neutralizing antibody inhibited NF-κB activity selectively in LRP-1-deficient cells. We propose that LRP-1 suppresses expression of inflammatory mediators indirectly, by regulating TNFR1-dependent cell signaling through the IkB kinase-NF-ΚB pathway.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology