Regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses by the related cytokines IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27

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    Abstract

    The functional characterization and subsequent purification of T cell growth factor/interleukin (IL)-2 in the early 1980s established this secreted protein as a key mediator of immune cell activation and provided the prototype that enabled the discovery of numerous cytokines over the ensuing two decades. While soluble immunoregulatory factors were initially identified functionally as biological activities present in the culture supernatants of activated lymphocytes/monocytes, this methodology shifted radically following the completion of the human genome sequence. Computer-generated structural modeling algorithms have replaced functional assays and biochemical purification as the initial means of discovering new cytokines. To date, a total of 31 interleukins, as well as over a dozen other related hematopoietic factors, have been identified. These cytokines and their receptors may be grouped on the basis of structural homologies as well as by shared ligand and receptor subunits. The challenge now at hand is to define the biological functions of the newly identified cytokines and to elucidate the common and divergent roles of related family members. This point is well illustrated by the IL-12/IL-23/IL-27 family, whose members share ligand and receptor subunits and play somewhat overlapping roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. These three cytokines are not entirely redundant, as they may preferentially activate naïve or memory T cells, induce discrete T cell cytokine profiles, contribute to distinct stages of host immune responses to infectious agents, and differentially promote autoimmunity. Further elucidation of the unique functions of the IL-12 family members may lead to improved immunodiagnostics and therapies.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)15-24
    Number of pages10
    JournalArchivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
    Volume54
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Feb 2006

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    Interleukin-27
    Interleukin-23
    Adaptive Immunity
    Interleukin-12
    Innate Immunity
    Cytokines
    Interleukin-2
    Ligands
    T-Lymphocytes
    Cytokine Receptors
    Interleukins
    Human Genome
    Autoimmunity
    Monocytes
    Hand
    Lymphocytes
    Proteins

    Keywords

    • Cytokines
    • Immune regulation
    • T cell activation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Immunology

    Cite this

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    abstract = "The functional characterization and subsequent purification of T cell growth factor/interleukin (IL)-2 in the early 1980s established this secreted protein as a key mediator of immune cell activation and provided the prototype that enabled the discovery of numerous cytokines over the ensuing two decades. While soluble immunoregulatory factors were initially identified functionally as biological activities present in the culture supernatants of activated lymphocytes/monocytes, this methodology shifted radically following the completion of the human genome sequence. Computer-generated structural modeling algorithms have replaced functional assays and biochemical purification as the initial means of discovering new cytokines. To date, a total of 31 interleukins, as well as over a dozen other related hematopoietic factors, have been identified. These cytokines and their receptors may be grouped on the basis of structural homologies as well as by shared ligand and receptor subunits. The challenge now at hand is to define the biological functions of the newly identified cytokines and to elucidate the common and divergent roles of related family members. This point is well illustrated by the IL-12/IL-23/IL-27 family, whose members share ligand and receptor subunits and play somewhat overlapping roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. These three cytokines are not entirely redundant, as they may preferentially activate na{\"i}ve or memory T cells, induce discrete T cell cytokine profiles, contribute to distinct stages of host immune responses to infectious agents, and differentially promote autoimmunity. Further elucidation of the unique functions of the IL-12 family members may lead to improved immunodiagnostics and therapies.",
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    AB - The functional characterization and subsequent purification of T cell growth factor/interleukin (IL)-2 in the early 1980s established this secreted protein as a key mediator of immune cell activation and provided the prototype that enabled the discovery of numerous cytokines over the ensuing two decades. While soluble immunoregulatory factors were initially identified functionally as biological activities present in the culture supernatants of activated lymphocytes/monocytes, this methodology shifted radically following the completion of the human genome sequence. Computer-generated structural modeling algorithms have replaced functional assays and biochemical purification as the initial means of discovering new cytokines. To date, a total of 31 interleukins, as well as over a dozen other related hematopoietic factors, have been identified. These cytokines and their receptors may be grouped on the basis of structural homologies as well as by shared ligand and receptor subunits. The challenge now at hand is to define the biological functions of the newly identified cytokines and to elucidate the common and divergent roles of related family members. This point is well illustrated by the IL-12/IL-23/IL-27 family, whose members share ligand and receptor subunits and play somewhat overlapping roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. These three cytokines are not entirely redundant, as they may preferentially activate naïve or memory T cells, induce discrete T cell cytokine profiles, contribute to distinct stages of host immune responses to infectious agents, and differentially promote autoimmunity. Further elucidation of the unique functions of the IL-12 family members may lead to improved immunodiagnostics and therapies.

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