Recalled Initiation and Duration of Maternal Breastfeeding Among Children with and Without ADHD in a Well Characterized Case–Control Sample

Diane Stadler, Erica D. Musser, Kathleen F. Holton, Jackilen (Jackie) Shannon, Joel Nigg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Early environmental influences are increasingly of interest in understanding ADHD as a neurodevelopmental condition, particularly in light of recognition that gene by environment interplay are likely involved in this condition. Breastfeeding duration predicts cognitive development, as well as development of brain white matter connectivity, in areas similar to those seen in ADHD. Prior studies show an association between breastfeeding and ADHD but without adequate evaluation of ADHD. A case control cohort of 474 children aged 7–13 years was examined, 291 with wellcharacterized ADHD (71.5 % male) and the rest typically developing controls (51.9 % male). Mothers retrospectively reported on breast feeding initiation and duration. Initiation of breastfeeding was not associated with child ADHD, but shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with child ADHD with a medium effect size (d = 0.40, p <0.05); this effect held after covarying a broad set of potential confounders, including child oppositional defiant and conduct problems and including maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms. Effects were replicated across both parent and teacher ratings of child ADHD symptoms. Shorter duration of breastfeeding is among several risk factors in early life associated with future ADHD, or else longer duration is protective. The direction of this effect is unknown, however. It may be that some children are more difficult to breastfeed or that breastfeeding provides nutrients or other benefits that reduce future chance of ADHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Abnormal Child Psychology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Mar 8 2015

Fingerprint

Breast Feeding
Mothers
Food
Brain
Genes

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • ADHD
  • ADHD and depression
  • Breastfeeding
  • Breastfeeding
  • Case–control study
  • Child ADHD
  • Child ADHD symptoms
  • Environmental influences
  • Maternal ADHD
  • Neurodevelopmental condition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Recalled Initiation and Duration of Maternal Breastfeeding Among Children with and Without ADHD in a Well Characterized Case–Control Sample. / Stadler, Diane; Musser, Erica D.; Holton, Kathleen F.; Shannon, Jackilen (Jackie); Nigg, Joel.

In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 08.03.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c75a64de8e2a4873aa241b521616073c,
title = "Recalled Initiation and Duration of Maternal Breastfeeding Among Children with and Without ADHD in a Well Characterized Case–Control Sample",
abstract = "Early environmental influences are increasingly of interest in understanding ADHD as a neurodevelopmental condition, particularly in light of recognition that gene by environment interplay are likely involved in this condition. Breastfeeding duration predicts cognitive development, as well as development of brain white matter connectivity, in areas similar to those seen in ADHD. Prior studies show an association between breastfeeding and ADHD but without adequate evaluation of ADHD. A case control cohort of 474 children aged 7–13 years was examined, 291 with wellcharacterized ADHD (71.5 {\%} male) and the rest typically developing controls (51.9 {\%} male). Mothers retrospectively reported on breast feeding initiation and duration. Initiation of breastfeeding was not associated with child ADHD, but shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with child ADHD with a medium effect size (d = 0.40, p <0.05); this effect held after covarying a broad set of potential confounders, including child oppositional defiant and conduct problems and including maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms. Effects were replicated across both parent and teacher ratings of child ADHD symptoms. Shorter duration of breastfeeding is among several risk factors in early life associated with future ADHD, or else longer duration is protective. The direction of this effect is unknown, however. It may be that some children are more difficult to breastfeed or that breastfeeding provides nutrients or other benefits that reduce future chance of ADHD.",
keywords = "ADHD, ADHD, ADHD and depression, Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding, Case–control study, Child ADHD, Child ADHD symptoms, Environmental influences, Maternal ADHD, Neurodevelopmental condition",
author = "Diane Stadler and Musser, {Erica D.} and Holton, {Kathleen F.} and Shannon, {Jackilen (Jackie)} and Joel Nigg",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1007/s10802-015-9987-9",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology",
issn = "0091-0627",
publisher = "Springer New York",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Recalled Initiation and Duration of Maternal Breastfeeding Among Children with and Without ADHD in a Well Characterized Case–Control Sample

AU - Stadler, Diane

AU - Musser, Erica D.

AU - Holton, Kathleen F.

AU - Shannon, Jackilen (Jackie)

AU - Nigg, Joel

PY - 2015/3/8

Y1 - 2015/3/8

N2 - Early environmental influences are increasingly of interest in understanding ADHD as a neurodevelopmental condition, particularly in light of recognition that gene by environment interplay are likely involved in this condition. Breastfeeding duration predicts cognitive development, as well as development of brain white matter connectivity, in areas similar to those seen in ADHD. Prior studies show an association between breastfeeding and ADHD but without adequate evaluation of ADHD. A case control cohort of 474 children aged 7–13 years was examined, 291 with wellcharacterized ADHD (71.5 % male) and the rest typically developing controls (51.9 % male). Mothers retrospectively reported on breast feeding initiation and duration. Initiation of breastfeeding was not associated with child ADHD, but shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with child ADHD with a medium effect size (d = 0.40, p <0.05); this effect held after covarying a broad set of potential confounders, including child oppositional defiant and conduct problems and including maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms. Effects were replicated across both parent and teacher ratings of child ADHD symptoms. Shorter duration of breastfeeding is among several risk factors in early life associated with future ADHD, or else longer duration is protective. The direction of this effect is unknown, however. It may be that some children are more difficult to breastfeed or that breastfeeding provides nutrients or other benefits that reduce future chance of ADHD.

AB - Early environmental influences are increasingly of interest in understanding ADHD as a neurodevelopmental condition, particularly in light of recognition that gene by environment interplay are likely involved in this condition. Breastfeeding duration predicts cognitive development, as well as development of brain white matter connectivity, in areas similar to those seen in ADHD. Prior studies show an association between breastfeeding and ADHD but without adequate evaluation of ADHD. A case control cohort of 474 children aged 7–13 years was examined, 291 with wellcharacterized ADHD (71.5 % male) and the rest typically developing controls (51.9 % male). Mothers retrospectively reported on breast feeding initiation and duration. Initiation of breastfeeding was not associated with child ADHD, but shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with child ADHD with a medium effect size (d = 0.40, p <0.05); this effect held after covarying a broad set of potential confounders, including child oppositional defiant and conduct problems and including maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms. Effects were replicated across both parent and teacher ratings of child ADHD symptoms. Shorter duration of breastfeeding is among several risk factors in early life associated with future ADHD, or else longer duration is protective. The direction of this effect is unknown, however. It may be that some children are more difficult to breastfeed or that breastfeeding provides nutrients or other benefits that reduce future chance of ADHD.

KW - ADHD

KW - ADHD

KW - ADHD and depression

KW - Breastfeeding

KW - Breastfeeding

KW - Case–control study

KW - Child ADHD

KW - Child ADHD symptoms

KW - Environmental influences

KW - Maternal ADHD

KW - Neurodevelopmental condition

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84924242744&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84924242744&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10802-015-9987-9

DO - 10.1007/s10802-015-9987-9

M3 - Article

C2 - 25749651

AN - SCOPUS:84955742512

JO - Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

JF - Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

SN - 0091-0627

ER -