Raynaud Syndrome

Sergio Toledo Valdovinos, Gregory Landry

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Raynaud syndrome (RS) was first described by the French physician Maurice Raynaud in 1862 with the characteristic tricolor change featuring pallor (ischemic phase), cyanosis (deoxygenation phase), and erythema (reperfusion phase) induced by cold or stress. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unclear, alterations in activity of the peripheral adrenoceptor have been implicated, specifically an enhanced smooth muscle contraction due to overexpression or hyperactivity of postsynaptic alpha 2 receptors. There are 2 ways that RS can appear clinically; isolated, formerly referred as Raynaud disease or now primary RS and in association with other conditions, usually connective tissue disorders (eg, Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis), frequently called Raynaud phenomenon or secondary RS. The estimated prevalence in the general population is 3%-5%, with a higher prevalence in women than in men. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on patient descriptions of skin changes. Upper extremity pulse-volume recording is used to rule out proximal arterial obstruction. The differentiation between a vasospastic vs and obstructive mechanism is made using digital pressures and photoplethysmography, where an obstructive mechanism has decreased pressures and blunted waveforms. Cold challenge testing, such as ice water immersion with temperature recovery, is highly sensitive but lack specificity. Serologic screening (antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor) is advocated to rule out associated connective tissue disorders. Most patients with RS can be managed conservatively, with avoidance of cold exposure or hand warming. For those in whom conservative management is inadequate, a number of pharmacologic and surgical therapies have been used. Owing to lack of complete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, targeted therapy has not been possible rather, therapy has been focused on the use of general vasodilation strategies. In this review, the diagnosis, natural history, and current medical and invasive therapy are summarized.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)241-246
    Number of pages6
    JournalTechniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
    Volume17
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Dec 1 2014

    Fingerprint

    Raynaud Disease
    Antinuclear Antibodies
    Connective Tissue
    Photoplethysmography
    Pallor
    Pressure
    Cyanosis
    Rheumatoid Factor
    Ice
    Immersion
    Therapeutics
    Erythema
    Muscle Contraction
    Natural History
    Vasodilation
    Upper Extremity
    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    Adrenergic Receptors
    Reperfusion
    Smooth Muscle

    Keywords

    • Raynaud syndrome
    • Upper extremity ischemia
    • Vasospasm

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
    • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

    Cite this

    Raynaud Syndrome. / Valdovinos, Sergio Toledo; Landry, Gregory.

    In: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Vol. 17, No. 4, 01.12.2014, p. 241-246.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Valdovinos, Sergio Toledo ; Landry, Gregory. / Raynaud Syndrome. In: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2014 ; Vol. 17, No. 4. pp. 241-246.
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