Randomized trial of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention of cerebral small vessel disease and inflammation in aging (PUFA trial): Rationale, design and baseline results

Gene L. Bowman, Lisa C. Silbert, Hiroko H. Dodge, David Lahna, Kirsten Hagen, Charles F. Murchison, Diane Howieson, Jeffrey Kaye, Joseph F. Quinn, Lynne Shinto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Vascular risk factors for age-related cognitive decline are significant, and their management may ultimately prove the most successful strategy for reducing risk and sustaining cognitive health. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with parallel group allocation to either marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) or soybean oil placebo assesses the effects on the total volume of accumulation in cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a potentially modifiable neurovascular component of age-related cognitive decline. Total WMH accumulation over 3 years is the primary endpoint. The safety and efficacy of n-3 PUFA is evaluated in older adults with significant WMH and suboptimum plasma n-3 PUFA as inclusion criteria. One hundred and two non-demented older adults were enrolled with a mean age of 81.1 (±4.4) years, WMH of 19.4 (±16.1) cm3, and a plasma n-3 PUFA of 86.64 (±29.21) µg/mL. 61% were female, 28% were apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 carriers, and the mean mini-mental state exam (MMSE) was 27.9 (±1.7). This trial provides an initial evaluation of n-3 PUFA effects on WMH, a reproducible and valid risk biomarker for cognitive decline, as well as on inflammatory biomarkers thought to play a role in WMH accumulation. We present the baseline results and operational experience of enriching a study population on advanced age, blood n-3 PUFA, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived WMH with biomarker outcomes (WMH, inflammation markers) in a dementia prevention paradigm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number735
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2019

Keywords

  • Cognitive decline
  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Elderly
  • Executive function
  • MRI
  • Neuroimaging
  • Vascular cognitive impairment
  • White matter hyperintensities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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