Thermoplasticized gutta-percha has been used to obturate root canals. The continuous wave of condensation technique uses the System B Heat Source with the choice of different-sized pluggers. The purpose of this study was to measure the temperatures within the root canal and on the root surface at different radicular levels while using the System B Heat Source. Fine, Fine-Medium, and Medium pluggers were evaluated at temperature settings of 200°C, 250°C, and 300°C. The Obtura II gutta-percha delivery system following the manufacturer's instructions and ultrasonically thermoplasticized gutta-percha were used for comparative purposes. The highest mean temperature change on the internal root surface was 74.19°C with the system B at the 6 mm level (6 mm coronal to working length) when the Fine-Medium plugger was set at 300°C. The lowest mean temperature change on the internal root surface was 2.09°C at the 0 mm level (at working length) when the F plugger was set at 200°C. With the Obtura II, the lowest mean internal temperature change was 5.22°C at the 0 mm level, whereas the highest mean internal temperature change was 26.63°C at the 6 mm level. With ultrasonic lateral compaction the lowest mean internal temperature change was 5.01°C at the 0 mm level, whereas the highest mean internal temperature change was 28.95°C at the 6 mm level. At no time did the System B, the Obtura II, or ultrasonic delivery of warm gutta-percha exceed an increase of 10°C at any thermocouple level on the external root surface.
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