Racial disparities in job strain among American and immigrant long-term care workers

David Hurtado, E. L. Sabbath, K. A. Ertel, O. M. Buxton, L. F. Berkman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Nursing homes are occupational settings, with an increasing minority and immigrant workforce where several psychosocial stressors intersect. Aim: This study aimed to examine racial/ethnic differences in job strain between Black (n=127) and White (n=110) immigrant and American direct-care workers at nursing homes (total n=237). Methods: Cross-sectional study with data collected at four nursing homes in Massachusetts during 2006-2007. We contrasted Black and White workers within higher-skilled occupations such as registered nurses or licensed practical nurses (n=82) and lower-skilled staff such as certified nursing assistants (CNAs, n=155). Results: Almost all Black workers (96%) were immigrants. After adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics, Black employees were more likely to report job strain, compared with Whites [relative risk (RR): 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 6.6]. Analyses stratified by occupation showed that Black CNAs were more likely to report job strain, compared with White CNAs (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.0 to 9.4). Black workers were also more likely to report low control (RR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.0). Additionally, Black workers earned $2.58 less per hour and worked 7.1 more hours per week on average, controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion: Black immigrant workers were 2.9 times more likely to report job strain than White workers, with greater differences among CNAs. These findings may reflect differential organizational or individual characteristics but also interpersonal or institutional racial/ethnic discrimination. Further research should consider the role of race/ethnicity in shaping patterns of occupational stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-244
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Nursing Review
Volume59
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

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Long-Term Care
Nursing Homes
Confidence Intervals
Occupations
Racism
Nursing
Cross-Sectional Studies
Nurses
Demography
Research

Keywords

  • Emigrants and Immigrants
  • Long-term Care
  • Nursing Homes
  • Nursing Staff
  • Race Relations
  • United States of America
  • Work Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)

Cite this

Racial disparities in job strain among American and immigrant long-term care workers. / Hurtado, David; Sabbath, E. L.; Ertel, K. A.; Buxton, O. M.; Berkman, L. F.

In: International Nursing Review, Vol. 59, No. 2, 01.06.2012, p. 237-244.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hurtado, David ; Sabbath, E. L. ; Ertel, K. A. ; Buxton, O. M. ; Berkman, L. F. / Racial disparities in job strain among American and immigrant long-term care workers. In: International Nursing Review. 2012 ; Vol. 59, No. 2. pp. 237-244.
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