Purpose: Our purpose was to use 3-dimensional (3D) surface photography to quantitatively measure breast cosmesis within the framework of a randomized clinical trial of conventionally fractionated (CF) and hypofractionated (HF) whole breast irradiation (WBI); to identify how 3D measurements are associated with patient- and physician-reported cosmesis; and to determine whether objective measures of breast symmetry varied by WBI treatment arm or transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) status. Methods and Materials: From 2011 to 2014, 287 women age ≥40 with ductal carcinoma in situ or early-stage invasive breast cancer were enrolled in a multicenter trial and randomized to HF-WBI or CF-WBI with a boost. Three-dimensional surface photography was performed at 3 years posttreatment. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes were recorded with the Breast Cancer Treatment Outcome Scale. Physician-reported cosmetic outcomes were assessed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Volume ratios and 6 quantitative measures of breast symmetry, termed F1-6C, were calculated using the breast contour and fiducial points assessed on 3D surface images. Associations between all metrics, patient- and physician-reported cosmesis, treatment arm, and TGFβ1 genotype were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Among 77 (39 CF-WBI and 38 HF-WBI) evaluable patients, both patient- and physician-reported cosmetic outcomes were significantly associated with the F1C vertical symmetry measure (both P <.05). Higher dichotomized F1C and volumetric symmetry measures were associated with improved patient- and physician-reported cosmesis on multivariable logistic regression (both P ≤.05). There were no statistically significant differences in vertical symmetry or volume measures between treatment arms. Increased F6C horizontal symmetry was observed in the CF-WBI arm (P =.05). Patients with the TGFβ1 C-509T variant allele had lower F2C vertical symmetry measures (P =.02). Conclusions: Quantitative 3D image-derived measures revealed comparable cosmetic outcomes with HF-WBI compared with CF-WBI. Our findings suggest that 3D surface imaging may be a more sensitive method for measuring subtle cosmetic changes than global patient- or physician-reported assessments.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging