Quantification of Shunt Volume Through Ventricular Septal Defect by Real-Time 3-D Color Doppler Echocardiography: An in Vitro Study

Meihua Zhu, Muhammad Ashraf, Lydia Tam, Cole Streiff, Sumito Kimura, Eriko Shimada, David Sahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Quantification of shunt volume is important for ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The aim of the in vitro study described here was to test the feasibility of using real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography (RT3-D-CDE) to quantify shunt volume through a modeled VSD. Eight porcine heart phantoms with VSDs ranging in diameter from 3 to 25 mm were studied. Each phantom was passively driven at five different stroke volumes from 30 to 70 mL and two stroke rates, 60 and 120 strokes/min. RT3-D-CDE full volumes were obtained at color Doppler volume rates of 15, 20 and 27 volumes/s. Shunt flow derived from RT3-D-CDE was linearly correlated with pump-driven stroke volume (R = 0.982). RT3-D-CDE-derived shunt volumes from three color Doppler flow rate settings and two stroke rate acquisitions did not differ (p > 0.05). The use of RT3-D-CDE to determine shunt volume though VSDs is feasible. Different color volume rates/heart rates under clinically/physiologically relevant range have no effect on VSD 3-D shunt volume determination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
StateAccepted/In press - Apr 28 2015



  • Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography
  • Shunt volume
  • Ventricular septal defect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Biophysics

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