Although the majority of congenital heart disease survivors are thriving, many are at risk for declining emotional well-being as they age. Emotional distress is a risk factor for poorer health outcomes and must be addressed. Primary care and cardiology teams may be the first line of defense in identifying and providing referral resources for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and medical trauma. The current review provides information about commonly used self-report measures of emotional distress to identify symptoms that warrant referral and describes multiple options for addressing these symptoms.
- Congenital heart disease
- Emotional distress
- Medical trauma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine