Proteins are an essential part of essentially all biological processes, and there is enormous variation in protein forms and concentrations that is not reflected in DNA or RNA. Recently there have been rapid advances in the ability to measure protein sequence, modification and concentration, particularly with methods based in mass spectrometry. Global measures of proteins in tissues or in the circulation provide a broad assessment of the proteome that can be extremely useful for discovery, and targeted proteomic measures can yield specific and sensitive assessments of specific peptides and proteins. While most proteomic measures are directed at the detection of consensus peptide sequences, mass spectrometry based proteomic methods also allow a detailed examination of the peptide sequence differences that result from genetic variants and that may have important effects on protein function. In evaluating proteomic data, a number of analytical considerations are important, including an understanding of missing data, the challenge of multiple testing and replication, and the use of rapidly evolving methods in systems biology. While proteomics has not yet had a major impact in skeletal research, interesting recent research has used these approaches in the study of bone cell biology and the discovery of biomarkers of skeletal disorders. Proteomics can be expected to have an increasing influence in the study of bone biology and pathophysiology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism