BACKGROUND: Previous infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provides strong protection against future infection. There is limited evidence on whether such protection extends to the Omicron variant. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 635 341 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 via polymerase chain reaction from 9 March 2020 to 1 March 2022. Patients were analyzed according to the wave in which they were initially infected. The primary outcome was reinfection during the Omicron period (20 December 2021-1 March 2022). We used a multivariable model to assess the effects of prior infection and vaccination on hospitalization. RESULTS: Among the patients tested during the Omicron wave, 30.6% tested positive. Protection of prior infection against reinfection with Omicron ranged from 18.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0-22.7) for patients infected in wave 1 to 69.2% (95% CI, 63.4-74.1) for those infected in the Delta wave. In adjusted models, previous infection reduced hospitalization by 28.5% (95% CI, 19.1-36.7), whereas full vaccination plus a booster reduced it by 59.2% (95% CI, 54.8-63.1). CONCLUSIONS: Previous infection offered less protection against Omicron than was observed in past waves. Immunity against future waves will likely depend on the degree of similarity between variants.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America|
|State||Published - Feb 8 2023|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases