Purpose: The ideal imaging study for evaluation of the upper urinary tract in patients with microhematuria has been debated. We prospectively compared the diagnostic yield of computerized tomography (CT) to excretory urography (IVP) in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microhematuria. Materials and Methods: Between December 1998 and June 2001, 115 patients presenting with asymptomatic microhematuria underwent CT and IVP before cystoscopy. Helical CT images with 5 mm. adrenal and kidney slices with and without contrast material were followed by delayed 5 mm. ureteral contrast images through the bladder base. Each CT and IVP was examined by a radiologist who was blinded to the result of the other imaging study. Diagnostic yields of the imaging techniques were compared using the test of 2 proportions and chi-square analysis. Results: Radiographic abnormalities were noted on CT or IVP in 38 patients. Sensitivity was 100% for CT and 60.5% for IVP, and specificity 97.4% for CT and 90.9% for IVP. CT accuracy was 98.3% compared to IVP accuracy which was 80.9% (p <0.001). A total of 40 nonurological diagnoses were made by CT, including 3 abdominal aortic aneurysms and 1 iliac artery aneurysm. No additional diagnoses were made by IVP. Fewer additional radiographic studies wdre recolmended after CT than after IVP. Conclusions: The use of CT in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microhematuria results in better diagnostic yield. In addition, more nonurological diagnoses can be made and less additional radiography is needed to confirm a diagnosis.
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