Nonhuman primates (NHPs) represent clinically relevant animal models used in studies on the etiology and treatment of human diseases. In the context of reproduction, NHP models are relevant to research interests as diverse as the etiology and treatment of infertility and contraceptive development to an evaluation of cell or tissue-based therapies of disease employing embryonic stem cell-derived phenotypes. The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are used in the production of animals carrying desired MHC alleles for HIV vaccine development and could be used in the production of genetically identical animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). SCNT in turn is relevant to rescuing the unique genetics of aging or even deceased animals, to testing the efficacy of therapeutic cloning, and in combination with gene targeting, to creating monkey models of genetically based, neurodegenerative diseases. Since most NHP experience in applying the ARTs and in deriving embryonic stem cells (ESCs) involves Old World monkeys, principally rhesus and cynomolgus macaques and baboons, studies with these species will be featured in this chapter.
- Assisted reproductive technology
- Embryonic stem cells
- Nonhuman primates
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