BACKGROUND: The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria is an explicit list of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) best avoided in adults ≥65 years of age. Cognitively impaired and frail surgical patients often experience poor outcomes after surgery, but the impacts of PIMs on these patients are unclear. Our objective was to assess whether perioperative PIM administration was associated with poor outcomes in geriatric surgical patients. We then evaluated the association between PIM administration and postoperative outcomes in subgroups of patients who were frail or cognitively impaired. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients ≥65 years of age who underwent elective inpatient surgery at a large academic medical center from February 2018 to January 2020. Edmonton Frail Scale and Mini-Cog screening tools were administered to all patients at their preoperative clinic visit. A Mini-Cog score of 0 to 2 was considered cognitive impairment, and frailty was defined by an Edmonton Frail Scale score of ≥8. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on whether they received at least 1 PIM (PIM+), based on the 2019 AGS Beers Criteria, in the perioperative period or none (PIM-). We assessed the association of preoperative frailty, cognitive impairment, and perioperative PIM administration with the length of hospital stay and discharge disposition using multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ASA physical status, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: Of the 1627 included patients (mean age, 73.7 years), 69.3% (n = 1128) received at least 1 PIM. A total of 12.7% of patients were frail, and 11.1% of patients were cognitively impaired; 64% of the frail patients and 58% of the cognitively impaired patients received at least 1 PIM. Perioperative PIM administration was associated with longer hospital stay after surgery (PIM-, 3.56 ± 5.2 vs PIM+, 4.93 ± 5.66 days; P < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.360-0.546). Frail patients who received PIMs had an average length of stay (LOS) that was nearly 2 days longer than frail patients who did not receive PIMs (PIM-, 4.48 ± 5.04 vs PIM+, 6.33 ± 5.89 days; P = .02). Multiple regression analysis revealed no significant association between PIM administration and proportion of patients discharged to a care facility (PIM+, 26.3% vs PIM-, 28.7%; P = .87; 95% CI, -0.046 to 0.054). CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative PIM administration was common in older surgical patients, including cognitively impaired and frail patients. PIM administration was associated with an increased hospital LOS, particularly in frail patients. There was no association found between PIM administration and discharge disposition.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine