The determination of the host ranges of viruses is important because of the possible emergence of infectious agents, which may result from the zoonotic transmission of animal viruses to humans. The family Nodaviridae, whose members are non-enveloped, positive-stranded bipartite RNA viruses, is comprised of the genera Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus, whose members predominantly infect insects and fish, respectively. The alphanodaviruses can also infect suckling mice and suckling hamsters, resulting in paralysis and death. Pigs near the site of isolation of the Nodamura virus (NoV), an alphanodavirus, have been reported to have high levels of NoV neutralizing antibody, suggesting that they may be part of the natural host range of this virus. Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis, which occurs in several species of fish. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of infection of these viruses. Whether betanodaviruses can infect hosts other than fish remains unclear. In this study, we examined the possibility that a betanodavirus, redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), can infect human cell lines and showed that this virus can attach to the cells but cannot penetrate them, although human cells can support the replication of the betanodavirus when viral RNAs are transfected. The betanodavirus in its present form cannot infect human cells.
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