Potential for differentiation of pseudoprogression from true tumor progression with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using ferumoxytol vs. gadoteridol: A pilot study

Seymur Gahramanov, Ahmed M. Raslan, Leslie L. Muldoon, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, William D. Rooney, Csanad G. Varallyay, Jeffrey M. Njus, Marianne Haluska, Edward A. Neuwelt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

106 Scopus citations


Purpose: We evaluated dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) using gadoteridol in comparison to the iron oxide nanoparticle blood pool agent, ferumoxytol, in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who received standard radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with GBM received standard RCT and underwent 19 MRI sessions that included DSC-MRI acquisitions with gadoteridol on Day 1 and ferumoxytol on Day 2. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values were calculated from DSC data obtained from each contrast agent. T1-weighted acquisition post-gadoteridol administration was used to identify enhancing regions. Results: In seven MRI sessions of clinically presumptive active tumor, gadoteridol-DSC showed low rCBV in three and high rCBV in four, whereas ferumoxytol-DSC showed high rCBV in all seven sessions (p = 0.002). After RCT, seven MRI sessions showed increased gadoteridol contrast enhancement on T1-weighted scans coupled with low rCBV without significant differences between contrast agents (p = 0.9). Based on post-gadoteridol T1-weighted scans, DSC-MRI, and clinical presentation, four patterns of response to RCT were observed: regression, pseudoprogression, true progression, and mixed response. Conclusion: We conclude that DSC-MRI with a blood pool agent such as ferumoxytol may provide a better monitor of tumor rCBV than DSC-MRI with gadoteridol. Lesions demonstrating increased enhancement on T1-weighted MRI coupled with low ferumoxytol rCBV are likely exhibiting pseudoprogression, whereas high rCBV with ferumoxytol is a better marker than gadoteridol for determining active tumor. These interesting pilot observations suggest that ferumoxytol may differentiate tumor progression from pseudoprogression and warrant further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)514-523
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2011



  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging
  • Glioblastoma multiforme
  • Pseudoprogression
  • Radiochemotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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