Potassium and its discontents: New insight, new treatments

David Ellison, Andrew S. Terker, Gerardo Gamba

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hyperkalemia is common in patients with impaired kidney function or who take drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. During the past decade, substantial advances in understanding how the body controls potassium excretion have been made, which may lead to improved standard of care for these patients. Renal potassium disposition is primarily handled by a short segment of the nephron, comprising part of the distal convoluted tubule and the connecting tubule, and regulation results from the interplay between aldosterone and plasma potassium. When dietary potassium intake and plasma potassium are low, the electroneutral sodium chloride cotransporter is activated, leading to salt retention. This effect limits sodium delivery to potassium secretory segments, limiting potassium losses. In contrast, when dietary potassium intake is high, aldosterone is stimulated. Simultaneously, potassium inhibits the sodium chloride cotransporter. Because more sodium is then delivered to potassium secretory segments, primed by aldosterone, kaliuresis results. When these processes are disrupted, hyperkalemia results. Recently, new agents capable of removing potassium from the body and treating hyperkalemia have been tested in clinical trials. This development suggests that more effective and safer approaches to the prevention and treatment of hyperkalemia may be on the horizon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

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Potassium
Hyperkalemia
Aldosterone
Dietary Potassium
Therapeutics
Sodium Chloride Symporters
Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters
Sodium
Kidney
Nephrons
Angiotensins
Standard of Care
Renin
Salts
Clinical Trials
Pharmaceutical Preparations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Potassium and its discontents : New insight, new treatments. / Ellison, David; Terker, Andrew S.; Gamba, Gerardo.

In: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 27, No. 4, 01.04.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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