Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and is one of the most common reproductive abnormalities encountered in women as well as Old World primates. The majority of endometriosis cases in Old World primates occur within the abdominal cavity, with spread to extraabdominal sites considered to be a rare event. A 19-year-old multiparous female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented to necropsy for difficulty breathing and weight loss. Grossly, the animal had marked abdominal endometriosis and severe hemoabdomen and hemothorax, the latter of which was accompanied by marked pleural fibrosis. Histologic examination confirmed the abdominal endometriosis and also revealed numerous uterine glands and stroma embedded within the pleural fibrosis. Rafts of endometrial tissue were present within pulmonary lymphatics and the tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Immunohistochemically, all ectopic endometrial tissue had varying degrees of positive immunoreactivity to cytokeratin, vimentin, progesterone and estrogen receptors, and calretinin but was negative for desmin and carcinoembryonic antigen. Pleural endometriosis is an extremely rare manifestation of endometriosis in nonhuman primates. This case report emphasizes lymphatic spread as a likely mechanism for extrauterine endometriosis.
- Macaca mulatta
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