Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is believed to be a critical mediator of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Because insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I (IGF-I) functions as a progression factor for the mitogenic effects of PDGF, we hypothesized that IGF-I gene expression and the production of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) by cultured rat aortic SMCs might be regulated by one or more of the three isoforms of PDGF: PDGF-AA, -BB, and -AB. IGF-I gene expression was highly dependent on cell density: IGF-I mRNA transcripts decreased markedly as a function of cell confluence. IGF-I mRNA content was inhibited to a similar degree by PDGF-AA, -BB, and -AB through a mechanism requiring protein synthesis. The inhibition was readily apparent at 4 hours, reaching approximately 25% of control levels after 24 hours. Radioimmunoassayable IGF-I was only barely detectable in SMC-conditioned serum-free medium and not significantly modulated by PDGF. Western ligand blot revealed that vascular SMCs release 30-kd and 24-kd IGFBP into serum-free conditioned medium. PDGF isoforms did not significantly alter release of the 30-kd IGFBP but evoked a fivefold to sixfold increase in the 24-kd IGFBP. The 24-kd IGFBP was found to comigrate with IGFBP-4, a recently identified binding protein that inhibits IGF action. The 30-kd protein was not merely a glycosylated form of IGFBP-4, because it was not sensitive to N-glycanase digestion. PDGF-AA, -BB, and -AB markedly induced expression of IGFBP-4 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Vascular SMCs also express IGFBP-2 mRNA, but its abundance was not induced by PDGF. In conclusion, PDGF evokes a complex pattern of regulation of genes in the IGF/IGFBP system. By inhibiting IGF-I production and specifically inducing biosynthesis of the inhibitory binding protein IGFBP-4, PDGF may set in motion mechanisms to limit the final magnitude of the mitogenic response.
- Insulin-like growth factor
- Insulin-like growth factor binding protein
- Platelet-derived growth factor
- Vascular smooth muscle cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine