Inositol pyrophosphates constitute a family of hyperphosphorylated signaling molecules involved in the regulation of glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. While our understanding of the biological roles of inositol heptaphosphates (PP-InsP5) has greatly improved, the functions of the inositol octaphosphates ((PP)2-InsP4) have remained unclear. Here we present the synthesis of two enantiomeric cell-permeant and photocaged (PP)2-InsP4 derivatives and apply them to study the functions in living β-cells. Photorelease of the naturally occurring isomer 1,5-(PP)2-InsP4 led to an immediate and concentration-dependent reduction of intracellular calcium oscillations, while other caged inositol pyrophosphates (3,5-(PP)2-InsP4, 5-PP-InsP5, 1-PP-InsP5, 3-PP-InsP5) showed no immediate effect. Furthermore, uncaging of 1,5-(PP)2-InsP4 but not 3,5-(PP)2-InsP4 induced translocation of the C2AB domain of granuphilin from the plasma membrane to the cytosol. Granuphilin is involved in membrane docking of secretory vesicles. This suggests that 1,5-(PP)2-InsP4 impacts β-cell activity by regulating granule localization and/or priming and calcium signaling in concert.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry