Purpose: Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition alone leads to incomplete responses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Combination therapy may reduce activation of escape pathways and deepen responses. This open-label, phase Ib, sequential dose-escalation and dose-expansion study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efﬁcacy of the selective BTK inhibitor tirabrutinib alone, in combination with the PI3K delta (PI3Kd) inhibitor idelalisib, or with the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor entospletinib in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL. Patients and Methods: Patients received either tirabrutinib monotherapy (80 mg every day) or tirabrutinib 20-150 mg every day in combination with either idelalisib (50 mg twice a day or 100 mg every day) or entospletinib (200 mg or 400 mg every day). Results: Fifty-three patients were included. Systemic tirabrutinib exposure was comparable between monotherapy and combination therapy. No MTD was identiﬁed. Across all treatment groups, the most common adverse event was diarrhea (43%, 1 patient grade ≥3); discontinuation due to adverse events was uncommon (13%). Objective response rates were 83%, 93%, and 100%, and complete responses were 7%, 7%, and 10% in patients receiving tirabrutinib, tirabrutinib/idelalisib, and tirabrutinib/ entospletinib, respectively. As of February 21, 2019, 46 of 53 patients continue to receive treatment on study. Conclusions: Tirabrutinib in combination with idelalisib or entospletinib was well tolerated in patients with CLL, establishing an acceptable safety proﬁle for concurrent selective inhibition of BTK with either PI3Kd or SYK. This small study did not establish a superior efﬁcacy of the combinations over tirabrutinib alone. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02457598).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research