Phase I Study of Clofarabine and 2-Gy Total Body Irradiation as a Nonmyeloablative Preparative Regimen for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

A Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia Consortium Study

Sandeep Soni, Hisham Abdel-Azim, Meghann McManus, Eneida Nemecek, Richard Sposto, Ann Woolfrey, Haydar Frangoul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside analog with immunosuppressive and antileukemic activity and its inclusion in reduced-intensity regimens could potentially improve outcomes. We performed a prospective phase I study of clofarabine combined with 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) as a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients who were considered at high risk of mortality from standard myeloablative regimens. The main goal of the study was to delineate the maximum feasible dose (MFD) of clofarabine in combination with 2 Gy TBI. Eighteen patients, 1 to 21 years of age and in complete remission, were enrolled in 2 strata (matched related donor and unrelated donor) and evaluated for day100 dose-limiting events (DLE) (nonengraftment, nonrelapse mortality [NRM], and severe renal insufficiency) after receiving clofarabine at the starting dose level of 40 mg/m2. All 6 patients (3 in each stratum) engrafted with no day 100 DLE seen in the first cohort. The dose was increased to 52 mg/m2 in the next and an expanded cohort (total of 12 patients) and no DLE were observed at day 100 and at the 1-year study endpoint. The regimen was well tolerated with transient transaminitis and gastrointestinal and skin reactions as the common reversible toxicities observed with clofarabine. The dose of 52 mg/m2 of clofarabine was deemed the MFD. Disease relapse led to mortality in 6 (33%) patients during follow-up with 1-year event-free survival and overall survival of 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34 to 79) and 71% (95% CI, 44 to 87), respectively. This regimen leads to successful engraftment using both related and unrelated donors with exceptionally low rates of NRM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1134-1141
Number of pages8
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Volume23
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

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Whole-Body Irradiation
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Hematologic Neoplasms
Leukemia
Pediatrics
Unrelated Donors
Mortality
Therapeutics
Confidence Intervals
Purine Nucleosides
Stem Cell Transplantation
Immunosuppressive Agents
Disease-Free Survival
Renal Insufficiency
clofarabine
Tissue Donors
Recurrence
Skin
Survival

Keywords

  • Clofarabine
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Nonmyeloablative

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation

Cite this

@article{3f89b41a544c427b8c37ffd23344d3b9,
title = "Phase I Study of Clofarabine and 2-Gy Total Body Irradiation as a Nonmyeloablative Preparative Regimen for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia Consortium Study",
abstract = "Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside analog with immunosuppressive and antileukemic activity and its inclusion in reduced-intensity regimens could potentially improve outcomes. We performed a prospective phase I study of clofarabine combined with 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) as a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients who were considered at high risk of mortality from standard myeloablative regimens. The main goal of the study was to delineate the maximum feasible dose (MFD) of clofarabine in combination with 2 Gy TBI. Eighteen patients, 1 to 21 years of age and in complete remission, were enrolled in 2 strata (matched related donor and unrelated donor) and evaluated for day100 dose-limiting events (DLE) (nonengraftment, nonrelapse mortality [NRM], and severe renal insufficiency) after receiving clofarabine at the starting dose level of 40 mg/m2. All 6 patients (3 in each stratum) engrafted with no day 100 DLE seen in the first cohort. The dose was increased to 52 mg/m2 in the next and an expanded cohort (total of 12 patients) and no DLE were observed at day 100 and at the 1-year study endpoint. The regimen was well tolerated with transient transaminitis and gastrointestinal and skin reactions as the common reversible toxicities observed with clofarabine. The dose of 52 mg/m2 of clofarabine was deemed the MFD. Disease relapse led to mortality in 6 (33{\%}) patients during follow-up with 1-year event-free survival and overall survival of 60{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 34 to 79) and 71{\%} (95{\%} CI, 44 to 87), respectively. This regimen leads to successful engraftment using both related and unrelated donors with exceptionally low rates of NRM.",
keywords = "Clofarabine, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Nonmyeloablative",
author = "Sandeep Soni and Hisham Abdel-Azim and Meghann McManus and Eneida Nemecek and Richard Sposto and Ann Woolfrey and Haydar Frangoul",
year = "2017",
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doi = "10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.03.037",
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volume = "23",
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T1 - Phase I Study of Clofarabine and 2-Gy Total Body Irradiation as a Nonmyeloablative Preparative Regimen for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

T2 - A Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia Consortium Study

AU - Soni, Sandeep

AU - Abdel-Azim, Hisham

AU - McManus, Meghann

AU - Nemecek, Eneida

AU - Sposto, Richard

AU - Woolfrey, Ann

AU - Frangoul, Haydar

PY - 2017/7/1

Y1 - 2017/7/1

N2 - Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside analog with immunosuppressive and antileukemic activity and its inclusion in reduced-intensity regimens could potentially improve outcomes. We performed a prospective phase I study of clofarabine combined with 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) as a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients who were considered at high risk of mortality from standard myeloablative regimens. The main goal of the study was to delineate the maximum feasible dose (MFD) of clofarabine in combination with 2 Gy TBI. Eighteen patients, 1 to 21 years of age and in complete remission, were enrolled in 2 strata (matched related donor and unrelated donor) and evaluated for day100 dose-limiting events (DLE) (nonengraftment, nonrelapse mortality [NRM], and severe renal insufficiency) after receiving clofarabine at the starting dose level of 40 mg/m2. All 6 patients (3 in each stratum) engrafted with no day 100 DLE seen in the first cohort. The dose was increased to 52 mg/m2 in the next and an expanded cohort (total of 12 patients) and no DLE were observed at day 100 and at the 1-year study endpoint. The regimen was well tolerated with transient transaminitis and gastrointestinal and skin reactions as the common reversible toxicities observed with clofarabine. The dose of 52 mg/m2 of clofarabine was deemed the MFD. Disease relapse led to mortality in 6 (33%) patients during follow-up with 1-year event-free survival and overall survival of 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34 to 79) and 71% (95% CI, 44 to 87), respectively. This regimen leads to successful engraftment using both related and unrelated donors with exceptionally low rates of NRM.

AB - Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside analog with immunosuppressive and antileukemic activity and its inclusion in reduced-intensity regimens could potentially improve outcomes. We performed a prospective phase I study of clofarabine combined with 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) as a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients who were considered at high risk of mortality from standard myeloablative regimens. The main goal of the study was to delineate the maximum feasible dose (MFD) of clofarabine in combination with 2 Gy TBI. Eighteen patients, 1 to 21 years of age and in complete remission, were enrolled in 2 strata (matched related donor and unrelated donor) and evaluated for day100 dose-limiting events (DLE) (nonengraftment, nonrelapse mortality [NRM], and severe renal insufficiency) after receiving clofarabine at the starting dose level of 40 mg/m2. All 6 patients (3 in each stratum) engrafted with no day 100 DLE seen in the first cohort. The dose was increased to 52 mg/m2 in the next and an expanded cohort (total of 12 patients) and no DLE were observed at day 100 and at the 1-year study endpoint. The regimen was well tolerated with transient transaminitis and gastrointestinal and skin reactions as the common reversible toxicities observed with clofarabine. The dose of 52 mg/m2 of clofarabine was deemed the MFD. Disease relapse led to mortality in 6 (33%) patients during follow-up with 1-year event-free survival and overall survival of 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34 to 79) and 71% (95% CI, 44 to 87), respectively. This regimen leads to successful engraftment using both related and unrelated donors with exceptionally low rates of NRM.

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JO - Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation

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