Pernicious anemia: Fundamental and practical aspects in diagnosis

Aung Myint Tun, Kyaw Zin Thein, Zin War Myint, Thein Hlaing Oo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Pernicious Anemia (PA), the most common cause of cobalamin deficiency anemia worldwide, is an autoimmune disease of multifactorial etiologies involving complex environmental and immunological factors. Although it was first reported by Addison in 1849 with subsequent advances in understanding of pathogenesis and molecular biology, diagnosis of PA is still challenging for clinicians because of its complexity and diverse clinical presentations. Conclusion: Herein, we provide an overview of PA, mainly focusing on its scientific and practical aspects in diagnosis. We also discuss the limitations of currently available diagnostic tools for the evaluation of cobalamin deficiency and PA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-22
Number of pages6
JournalCardiovascular and Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Cobalamia deficiency
  • Diagnostic challenges
  • Fundamental aspects
  • Pathophysiology
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Practical approach

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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