Perceived Racial Discrimination in Health Care, Completion of Standard Diabetes Services, and Diabetes Control Among a Sample of American Indian Women

Kelly L. Gonzales, William E. Lambert, Rongwei fu, Michelle Jacob, Anna K. Harding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations


Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine perceived experiences of racial discrimination (perceived discrimination) in health care and its associations with completing standards of care for diabetes management and diabetes control. This cross-sectional study included 200 adult American Indian (AI) women with type 2 diabetes from 4 health care facilities located on tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Participants completed a survey, and medical records were abstracted. Logistic regression was completed to assess associations. Sixty-seven percent of AI women reported discrimination during their lifetime of health care. After adjusting for patient characteristics, perceived discrimination was significantly associated with lower rates of dental exam; checks for blood pressure, creatinine, and total cholesterol; and pneumococcal vaccination. The association between perceived discrimination and total number of diabetes services completed was not statistically significant. Perceived discrimination was associated with having A1C values above target levels for diabetes control in unadjusted and adjusted models, but no association was observed for blood pressure or total cholesterol. In our sample of AI women with diabetes, two-thirds reported experiencing racial discrimination in their health care experience. Those reporting perceived discrimination completed fewer diabetes services and therefore may be at increased risk for comorbidities of diabetes. This finding supports the continued need for culturally responsive health care and programs of diabetes education to recognize perceived discrimination and its potential to impact success in self-management and services utilization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)747-755
Number of pages9
JournalThe Diabetes Educator
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2014


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)

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