Purpose: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC) represents 1% to 5% of cervical cancers, with limited data on management and outcomes. We evaluated patterns of care and outcomes for SCCC using the National Cancer Database. Methods and Materials: This retrospective cohort study of SCCC (2004-2011) included 542 cases. Patient demographic, diagnosis, treatment information, and overall survival (OS) were compared with descriptive statistics, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox models. Clinical reasoning was used to select variables for multivariable models to avoid overfitting. Results: SCCC had more comorbidities, higher grade, and advanced stage than other histologies. SCCC received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (36%) more often than squamous cell carcinoma (23%) and adenocarcinoma (13%, P < .001). SCCC had worse OS across all stages (P < .001). Looking at SCCC alone, patients who received chemoradiation (CRT) (with external beam and brachytherapy) and those who received chemotherapy and surgery (without RT) had similar OS (median OS 44 vs 47 months; P = .7) on Kaplan-Meier. Patients receiving CRT were more likely to have stage II or III and N+ disease (P < .001). When evaluating chemoradiation, the addition of brachytherapy resulted in improved median OS (35 vs 19 months; P = .001) regardless of surgical resection status and controlling for age and stage. Even after controlling for stage, age, and comorbidities, the addition of brachytherapy was associated with a 40% improvement in OS (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.0). Conclusions: SCCC patients benefit from chemotherapy with aggressive local treatment. Patients who receive CRT that included brachytherapy did as well as patients who received chemotherapy followed by surgery. Brachytherapy remains an essential component in the treatment of SCCC with CRT.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging